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Full text of "Greek ligatures in printing"

Greek ligatures in early modern printing 
Griekse ligaturen in de vroeg-moderne boeken 



An Index of Greek Ligatures and Contractions, William Wallace, 1923 3 

The Ligatures of Early Printed Greek, William H.Ingram, 1966 16 

Alphabetum Graecum, Parisiis 1532, Christianus Wechelus 37 

Aphabetum Graecum, Lugdunum 1544, Sebastianus Gryphius 76 

Alphabetum Graecum, Dionysius Halicarnassu, Menses Graecorum 95 
Parisiis 1550, Guil. Morelius 

Alphabtum Graecum, Lutetiae 1550, Robertus Stephanus 155 

Aphabetum Graecum, Theodoras Beza, 1554, Robertus Stephanus 221 

Aphabetum Graecum, Antverpiae 1566, Christophoras Plantinus 293 

Alphabeum Graecum, Romae 1771 325 



Leo Nellissen 
januari 2013 
www.stilus.nl 



Digitized by VjOOQLC 



AN INDEX OF GREEK LIGATURES AND CONTRACTIONS 

Introduction 

This Index owes its origin to the deciphering of a folio printed in Greek 
in Paris in 1628. As other books came under my eye, I found that in addition 
to the ligatures which I had analysed there were still many others, and I was 
so beguiled by their manifold and often obscure forms that I went far afield 
in my researches. It was surprising, no less than disconcerting, that with the 
exception of Proctor, to whom reference will presently be made, no one in modern 
days had occupied himself with a phase of Greek typography which, owing to 
its crabbedness and elusive contractions, based no doubt upon the Tironian 
practices of the scribes, had estranged students from the study of later Greek 
literature. 

Beginning with the Baskerville fount of 1763, I worked backwards, over- 
taking the Paris fount, till, with a Froben as a complication, I was entangled 
in an Aldine. This led me to Proctor's erudite monograph on The Printing of 
Greek in the Fifteenth Century, which was of great value, for by its means I was 
able to verify my own decipherings and at the same time to add to my list 
fresh examples from the texts and founts which he had analysed. 

Apart from Proctor's work only three lists were accessible. The first was 
that of Aldus Manutius (1494-5), who gave clues to the more complicated sorts x 
in one of his founts, adding that he passed over many ' connexiones ' as they 
could be identified very easily. The next list was that printed at the end of 
the Greek Grammar of Ramus (Hanover, 1605), in which the Aldine ' con- 
nexiones ' were included and others as well, a thoughtful proceeding if the 
Grammar was to be of any use, for it was printed almost entirely in ligatures. 
There were over 300 examples in this list. The last was the Grande Police of 
Fournier le jeune, Paris, 1764, which gave 376 ligatures in a fount of 776 sorts. 

Obviously these lists could print only such sorts as existed in their founts ; 
the Fell types, for instance, had extremely few, a sign that the English printers 
had begun to discard the ligature in favour of the simple sort. 

Owing to the melting down of founts containing ligatures, an Index of this 
kind cannot be printed from type ; it has to be copied by hand and reproduced 
by process from the manuscript. When it is considered that in an old fount 
there were hundreds of sorts — sometimes over a thousand — it is conceivable 
that in the preparation of this Index of over 500 ligatures some rare examples 
may have been overlooked, and therefore any additions will be gratefully 
acknowledged. When a fresh fount was examined its contractions were 

1 A " sort " is the printer's term for a single character or piece in his fount. 

183 



184 WILLIAM WALLACE 

compared with those already noted in order to secure accuracy. The deciphering 
was simple when a modern reprint was available, but the works which afforded 
the richest harvest were for the most part strange treatises on all manner of 
subjects, from Astronomy to Gastronomy, which had remained enshrined if 
not interred in their original garb. In these the open letters of a word threw 
light upon the ligature, and when these failed, examples and sentences had to 
be collated. Again, though the meaning of a ligature was clear, its shape was 
not accepted until a number of specimens in the same book had been examined 
in order to exclude the possibility of a batter or broken type. 

This is not the place to discuss what was the unit in a combination sort. 
My sole purpose is to assist the eye of the student, and purists in typography 
will perhaps visit me with their censure for including as a ligature a combination 
which consists of a ' kern ' and a ligature. A ' kern ' — French, crene or crenage 
— is denned as ' that part of a letter which overhangs its body, as in a lower-case 
f,' (Jacobi, Printing, sixth edition, p. 63). But in Greek typography a ' sort' 
is said to be ' kerned ' when part of the body or shoulder is cut away so as to 
allow the next ' sort ' to be brought so close that there is no visible space be ween 
the two. Thus sigma alpha or tan alpha (there are many other instances) were 
frequently kerned so as to present an unbroken continuity, and as they appeared 
to run into one another they were accepted as ligatured. Hence it is possible 
that some of the examples were copied from tw T o sorts so neatly kerned that 
they looked like one. My aim, however, was to reproduce appearances and 
shapes rather than to split hairs over typographical niceties. Accents and 
breathings are shown when they form part of the ligature, but in doubt the word 
itself, and failing it the context, wiJl prove the surest guide. 

It is rather late in the day to asperse the practices of the early designers 
of Greek founts or to quarrel with their type-setters. Litera scripta manet. 
What the ' litera ' meant is the whole function of this Index. The compositor 
who read olov as we prefer it had no scruples about printing it as olov and olov 
in one and the same line. Compare xi. 20 and 21. In one fount dpapuaKoy 
occurred with a different ligature for each ap, as though the breathing demanded 
discrimination. The compositor merely picked up the sort that was nearest. 
There are dozens of instances of misplaced accents and breathings, of different 
sorts and different ligatures for the same letters in one line of print. The 
crux in xix. 18 might weigh against accuracy in transcription. But it is just 
these liberties which the fifteenth-century compositors took which disconcert 
the scholars of the twentieth. Examined in the light of scholarship the ligature 
is wide of the mark in the placing of a circumflex over a short vowel, but the 
contraction exists in print. What happened was this. The compositor had to 
get in the words Xafi^dver ovv, but in order to justify his line he left out 
the space and ran two words together. So he kerned omikron and tan, put the 
apostrophe and breathing over omikron, and the circumflex on top. A short 
vowel circumflexed is, like metal on metal or colour on colour in heraldry, pour 
enquerir, and an Index of this kind, if it is to serve its purpose, must contain 
examples of inconsistencies and perversions, for it is these, far more than the 
stereotyped ligatures, that are difficult to interpret. 



INDEX OF GREEK LIGATURES AND CONTRACTIONS 185 

Ligatures are more easy to read when they are detached from the words 
in which they occur, and therefore when a syllable or word has a variety of 
ligatures, as iii. 1 to 8. the reading is given once only so as to avoid crowding and 
repetition. Detached specimens of a single sort, such as ii. 18, or xviii. 13, are 
written on the same line. 

The sorts in brackets show the manner in which symbols and contractions 
are combined with sorts, as in xi. 23 and xxiii. 12. The sort viii. 2 is an example 
of an apostrophe and rough breathing kerned, though it looks like an 
error in transcription. It is the unexpected that complicates deciphering, 
especially in founts of small size, and it is safer not to pillory the inter- 
pretation of a ligature without patient inquiry, for, however wrong the 
compositor, the scrupulous transcriber cannot be held accountable for breaches 
of scholarly decorum. The pitfalls are many, but it is hoped that this farrago 
literarum will be of some use in allaying the apprehensions of those who have 
been deterred from investigating early books printed in Greek owing to the 
forbidding aspect of their typography. 

I wish to acknowledge my indebtedness to Mr. V. Scholderer of the British 
Museum for his interest and advice, and for his calling my attention to some 
examples which I had overlooked. 

William Wallace. 



186 



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SOCIETY fOR THe PftOMOTTOTI Of lf019tCYrU#5 



An Index of Greek Ligatures and Contractions 

Author(s): William Wallace 

Source: The Journal of Hellenic Studies, Vol. 43, Part 2 (1923), pp. 183-193 

Published by; The Society for the Promotion of Hellenic Studies 

Stable URL: http: //www j stor . org/stable/6 25810 



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INGRAM, WILLIAM H., The Ligatures of Early Printed Greek , Greek, Roman and Byzantine 
Studies, 7:4 (1966:Winter) p.371 



The Ligatures of Early Printed Greek 

William H. Ingram 

A scholar working with sixteenth-century printed texts— if he 
is not trained in Classics — will be more often dismayed than 
enlightened when he encounters, in his Elizabethan quarto, 
an embedded Greek word or expression. The Greek may be simply a 
part of the running text, a happy devising of the author's to add 
authority to his prose; or it may be an extended quotation from a 
classical source. For one like myself, whose training is in English 
literature, the difficulty is not mitigated in the latter case; for even 
when an Elizabethan author identified his Greek I often had to 
accept on faith that it was a fragment of "Theogn" or "Arist" or 
"Herm Trism," the quotation as printed seeming no more than a 
series of alien convolutions to my perplexed eye. I saw little relevance 
between the Greek I had learned in school and this peculiar, cramped 
typeface which I could not read and which often contained only an 
occasional letter I could recognize. After much frustration of this sort 
I finally decided to attempt a resolution of the problem and to teach 
myself to read Renaissance Greek. I was ultimately successful, and in 
the course of my agon I came upon a number of interesting facts about 
the printing of Greek in the sixteenth century which, though hardly 
new, are perhaps inaccessible to many. Therefore, though my chief 
purpose in this article is to illustrate the forms which Greek ligatures 
took in the sixteenth century, and hopefully thereby to provide some 
aid for fellow sufferers, some preliminary comments about printing 
in general may not be out of place. 

My first rude awakening came with the realization that the Greek 
alphabet did not have the twenty-four simple letters which my 
schooling had led me to believe were inherent in the language. How 
Greek was written or printed was, as I found, merely a matter of 
convention at any given time. The special letter-forms and letter- 
combinations which were popular during the Renaissance existed 
in sufficient number to startle one's imagination. The Parisian printer 
Robert Estienne, for example, recorded in the middle of the sixteenth 
century that his case of Double Pica Greek, the largest of the three 

6 + G.R.B.S. 371 



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INGRAM, WILLIAM H., The Ligatures of Early Printed Greek , Greek, Roman and Byzantine 
Studies, 7:4 (1966:Winter) p.371 



372 THE LIGATURES OF EARLY PRINTED GREEK 

Greek type sizes in his shop, comprised four hundred and thirty 
different kinds of characters, or 'sorts'. (A 'sort' is the technical name 
for all the pieces of type which contain any one specific character — a 
letter, a combination of letters, a symbol — and which would therefore 
all be 'sorted' into one specific compartment in the type case when the 
type was removed from the press and put away.) Had we been able 
to look into Estienne's type case we would have found not twenty- 
four but thirty-eight different varieties, or 'sorts', of lowercase single 
letters. We would find that three hundred sixty-seven of the charac- 
ters in this fount were letter-combinations, or ligatures, of one kind 
or another, combinations with sigma alone accounting for eighty-two 
of them. 1 If we go back to the earliest days of printing we find the 
matter no simpler. Robert Proctor describes a fount designed in 
Venice in 1486 in which the appearance of script was consciously 
imitated "by an elaborate system of ligatures, two, three, and four 
letters being commonly cast in one piece, and in an immense variety 
of forms and combinations, so that the number of sorts . . . exceeds 
twelve hundred, and even this is probably far from representing the 
fount in its completed state as projected/' 2 

The term ligature' is a broad label, which we might profitably 
divide into subheadings. In its general sense a ligature is a series of 
two or more letters so designed that they are connected in varying 
degrees with one another. Being so connected, they must be cast on a 
single piece of type, which in turn necessitates a new compartment in 
the type case into which they can be sorted and stored. Each new 
ligature thus becomes an additional 'sort/ Ligatures are of two basic 
kinds, ties and contractions. In present-day printing one encounters 
almost exclusively the former: ligatures like ffl, for example, where 
the letters are so designed that they touch one another, or £t y where 
they do not touch but are connected by a loop, are ties ; they constitute 
individual 'sorts' for the modern printer, additional to the single 
letters f, 1, c and t. In all these cases the characters are joined without 
distortion. A large percentage of the many ligatures in early Greek 
founts were simply tied sorts, like >e, /ut 9 x&> **, or c& 9 in which the 
component letters are readily distinguishable. For the present-day 
reader it is the contractions, much more than the ties, which cause 

1 Victor Scholderer, Greek Printing Types, 1465-1927 (London 1927) 11; Robert Proctor, 
The Printing of Greek in the Fifteenth Century (Oxford 1900) 145. 

2 Proctor, Printing of Greek, pp. 12-3. 



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INGRAM, WILLIAM H., The Ligatures of Early Printed Greek , Greek, Roman and Byzantine 
Studies, 7:4 (1966:Winter) p.371 



WILLIAM H. INGRAM 373 

difficulty in reading. A contraction is a ligature in which two or more 
letters have been distorted, often drastically, to produce a composite 
symbol. Such figures as lq^ x and ££< represent extreme examples; 
each of these ligatures is a single sort, and they stand, according to 
their printer (Robert Estienne in this case) for xmzpovvTi-XiKos and 
TTapaKeL^vos. 3 In the majority of cases, our hardships in reading early 
printed Greek fall somewhere between the minimal difficulty of the 
ties and the utter confusion of the most excessive contractions. 

We can better understand the profusion of ligatures in the Renais- 
sance by seeing the printed Greek of our own day as merely a typo- 
graphical convention which has commanded general assent. We 
must accept that the type face which we call "Greek" would not 
necessarily be recognized as his own by an inhabitant of Periclean 
Athens. A Greek type face is, after all, designed primarily to be 
easily readable by persons, contemporaries of the printer and type 
designer, who read Greek; assuming that they publish the same 
works, a publisher whose Greek books are difficult to read will not 
sell so many books as one whose type is familiar and easily legible. 
All other considerations, even aesthetic ones, must eventually yield 
to such a basic economic fact. 

This principle was successfully understood by the Venetian printer 
Aldus Manutius, as he showed in 1490 when he decided to design and 
cast his own Greek type. Some of his contemporaries, truly pioneers 
in the field of type designing, had produced Greek founts based on the 
uncial letter form found in vellum manuscripts of the period, or on 
the somewhat freer letter style found in liturgical tracts and prayer 
books. Aldus chose to ignore all styles of the older, more formal book 
hand : his bid for commercial success led him to adopt as the model 
for his type the ordinary business and correspondence Greek hand- 
writing of his day. The scattered and undisciplined appearance of 
his finished type face, with its extravagantly contorted abbreviations 
and contractions, is simply the result of his determination to imitate 
the most common freehand features of everyday script. His judge- 
ment here, as elsewhere in his business dealings, was sound; but 
Robert Proctor, a partisan of the older letter forms, deplores Aldus' 
success : 

With a lesser man the choice would have signified less; with 

3 Alphabetum Graecum. [LutetiaeJ Oliua Roberti Stephani, MDLIIII. 



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INGRAM, WILLIAM H., The Ligatures of Early Printed Greek , Greek, Roman and Byzantine 
Studies, 7:4 (1966:Winter) p.371 



374 THE LIGATURES OF EARLY PRINTED GREEK 

Aldus it was disastrous. The enormous vogue of his publica- 
tions and the great number of them exercised an over- 
whelming influence, affected the whole future history of 
Greek printing, and inflicted on its aesthetic side a blow 
from which it has never recovered. 4 

Had such a disparagement been uttered to his face Aldus might, like 
the commercial successes of our own day, have cried all the way to 
the bank. His type face carried the field precisely because of its 
easy readability; and instructed by his success, other early printers 
of Greek gradually abandoned their experiments with type faces of 
a more formal nature. 

Aldus' triumph had by the beginning of the sixteenth century laid 
the foundation for a cursive Greek type; he made the popular style 
resemble, as it does even today, an italic rather than a roman face. 
To our modern eyes the older book-hand style may seem clearer than 
Aldus' cursive type, and we may privately wonder at the exotic 
literary skills of a public which preferred the Aldine fount to its 
competitors on the grounds of ease in reading; but such was indeed 
the case, and Aldus became further emboldened with each new 
success. Individual letters were made for him in increasing varieties 
of forms, and contractions were devised for newer and larger com- 
binations of letters. Aldus' 1495 Grammar of Theodoras of Gaza is 
an example of the extreme to which this practice was carried: words 
like iveoTws, iraparariKos and aopiaros were each represented by a 
single, carefully devised, intricately compacted scribal abbreviation, 
like the ones shown above for vnepcrvvreXiKos and irapaKeLnevos. 

Greek printed texts, as Victor Scholderer observes, were "in a fair 
way of breaking up into a collection of ideograms." 5 Though the 
making of ingenious ligatures might indeed have been exhilarating 
to the type designer, it no doubt wore thin the patience of the type- 
setter, who was obliged to use, and use rapidly and correctly, the 
multitudes of new sorts with which his type cases were being increased, 
A point of diminishing returns seems to have been reached at the 
end of the century, and the cutting of ligatures stabilized at a point 
somewhat below compositorial chaos, 

Aldus' great commercial success in the printing of Greek encour- 

4 Proctor, Printing of Greek, p. 15. 

5 Scholderer p.7. 



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INGRAM, WILLIAM H., The Ligatures of Early Printed Greek , Greek, Roman and Byzantine 
Studies, 7:4 (1966:Winter) p.371 



WILLIAM H. INGRAM 375 

aged other printers to try their hand. Thierry Martens somehow 
acquired Greek type at Louvain as early as 1501, with which he printed 
occasional words; Gilles de Gourmont had cut his own punches and 
struck his own matrices in Paris by 1507, and the first wholly Greek 
work published in France was done at his press that year — it was a 
reprint of Aldus' Theocritus, further testimony to the Venetian prin- 
ter's influence. Johannes Siberch was the first printer in England to 
use movable Greek type, in a number of books which he printed at 
Cambridge in 1521; four years earlier, however, the urge to print in 
Greek had impelled Wynkyn de Worde, who had no type, to cut 
Greek characters in wood. 6 Within a few years efforts were being 
made to cast Greek type in England. Richard Pynson possessed a 
locally-made fount of Greek in 1524, which he used in printing 
Linacre's De emendata structura. The difficulties under which he 
labored, however, are suggested in his address to the reader: 

Of your goodness, reader, excuse it if any of the letters in the 
Greek citations lack either accents, breathings, or proper 
marks. The printer was not sufficiently equipped with them, 
since Greek types have only recently been cast by him, and 
he had not prepared the quantity necessary for the comple- 
tion of this work. 7 

We may recognize here a problem which was not confined to 
Pynson 's founder; accents and breathings were from the first a 
source of difficulty, in the printing house as well as the foundry. One 
early solution was for the printer simply to ignore them, though this 
seems not to have been a widespread practice. The early type 
founders generally chose to include accents and breathings, but had 
to decide whether to cast them separate from the letters (as Pynson's 
founder chose to do) or to cast them on the same piece of type with 
the letter they covered. If accents and breathings were cast separately, 
smaller and more fragile than the letters, they increased the difficulty 

6 Siberch's publications that year include an Erasmus (STC 10496), a Galen (STC 11536) 
and a Lucan (STC 16896), all of which contain words or phrases in Greek. An example of 
de Worde's "wooden" Greek may be found in his 1517 edition of Whittington's Syntaxis 
(STC 25543), sig. D 5 v. He later acquired a standard fount. Samples of the work of Siberch 
and others may be seen in Frank Isaac's two-volume work, English & Scottish Printing 
Types (Oxford 1930 and 1932), which surveys printers before 1558. 

7 Lectori, S. Pro tuo candore optime lector aequo animoferas, si quce litterce in exemplis Hellen- 
ismi vel tonis f vel spiritibus t vel affectionibus careant. lis enim non satis erat instructus typographic 
videlicet recens ab eofusis characteribus grcecis y nee parata ea copia, qua ad hoc agendum opus est. 

6* 



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376 THE LIGATURES OF EARLY PRINTED GREEK 

of composing, increased the chance of error, and made more difficult 
the problem of getting an even impression on the paper. If they were 
cast together with the letter, then a great many more punches had 
to be engraved and matrices made, a time-consuming and expensive 
matter. Punches for vowels, and for diphthongs cast as ligatures, 
would have increased twelvefold. Consider the following permuta- 
tions with omega alone: cjwwcjcjwcjJjwojcow. A solution devised 
by Nicolas Jenson, a Venetian contemporary of Aldus, was to cast 
only the letters which contained both accents and breathings, i.e., 
the last six of the twelve examples just listed. Then the compositor 
could cut away with a knife whatever portion he did not want. A 
breathing mark could be cut away so that only a letter with an 
accent remained; or an accent could be removed to leave only a 
letter with a breathing; or both marks could be cut off to leave a 
plain letter. Robert Proctor, who explains this process in greater 
detail, 8 points out that such typesetting practice is generally detect- 
able in two ways. First, the type resulting from such surgery is 
misproportioned; the remaining accents or breathings are too far to 
one side or the other, or the circumflex is too high. Second, the 
cutting-out was rarely done well; the mark to be removed was often 
imperfectly cut away, or the mark which was to remain may be 
accidentally cut into. Sometimes a hasty typesetter would simply 
ignore the need for cutting-out; Proctor offers rjvloxos as an extreme 
example of what might, through compositorial carelessness, be 
found in an early printed text from a printing house using Jensonian 
type. 

The separate casting of accents and breathings gradually took 
precedence on the continent, and their effective use was demonstrated 
by Reyner Wolfe, a London printer who held a royal patent as printer 
in Greek, Latin and Hebrew, and who was the first English printer 
to possess Greek types in any quantity. Wolfe was a native of Gelder- 
land and apparently made regular visits to the Frankfort Fair, where 
matrices as well as books could be purchased. With type acquired 
from a foundry in Basle he printed the first entire Greek text in 
England, two homilies of John Chrysostom edited by John Cheke, in 
1543. 

At about this time, a half-century or so after the economic success 

8 Proctor, Printing of Greek, pp. 18-9. 



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Studies, 7:4 (1966:Winter) p.371 



WILLIAM H. INGRAM 377 

of the Aldine press had determined the general form of printed 
Greek, the type faces were given a virtually definitive shape by 
Francis I of France. In 1539 Francis had commissioned a new fount of 
type to be used by his Printer in Greek, Conrad Neobar, in printing 
editions from the vast royal collection of Greek manuscripts. With 
Neobar's death in 1540 Robert Estienne inherited the printing 
commission and the new types, thereby becoming presumably the 
new King's Printer in Greek, though no official patent to that effect 
exists. The type was designed by Claude Garamond, by all accounts 
the finest typographical artist of the age, who engraved the punches 
and made the matrices between 1541 and 1544. The capitals were 
derived from earlier models based on Lascaris, but the lowercase 
letters and abbreviations were modelled on the elegant calligraphy 
of Angelos Vergetios, of Candia in Crete, the cataloguer and copyist 
of the king's Greek manuscripts in the library at Fontainebleau, to 
whom Francis referred as his "escripvain expert in lettres grecques." 9 
The French Royal Greek types, or " character e$ regit 9 as they came to be 
known, were used in some of Estienne's finest works in the years after 
1544. They were received with universal applause and immediately 
became the preferred model for all European founders. Type cast 
from the Royal Greek matrices, or from matrices made in frank 
imitation of them, became prime desiderata in most large printing 
houses in the latter half of the sixteenth century. The success of these 
types paralleled, even surpassed, the earlier success of the Aldine 
founts in setting a European pattern. So popular were they that "the 
development of Greek printing was virtually arrested for quite two 
hundred years," with the result that "a Greek book printed in 1750 
presents to all intents and purposes the same appearance as a Greek 
book printed in 1550." 10 Fournier, the eighteenth century type 
founder, believed that the French Royal Greek founts were the only 
ones to possess practically all the known ligatures. 11 

This brief review of the early history of the printing of Greek must 
serve as a necessary prologue to my main concern, the presentation 

9 See Robert Proctor, Bibliographical Essays (London 1905) 95; Scholderer p.10; and 
Elizabeth Armstrong, Robert Estienne, Royal Printer (Cambridge 1954) 127-8. Miss Arm- 
strong offers a sample of Vergetios' hand in a plate facing p.128. 

10 Scholderer p.ll. For a survey of these types, see Aug. Bernard, Les Estienne, et les 
Types Grecs de Francois I er (Paris 1856). 

11 Daniel B. Updike, Printing Types, their History, Forms, and Use 2 I (Cambridge [Mass.3 
1951) 236. 



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378 THE LIGATURES OF EARLY PRINTED GREEK 

of a fairly comprehensive table of these early ligatures which were so 
popular during the Renaissance, but which now merely confuse and 
sometimes alienate the reader. Lacking such a table, the student 
whose needs require him to translate, or to transcribe, a bit of early 
printed Greek will generally be at a loss where to turn. His colleagues 
in his own department will merely commiserate. His colleagues in 
Classics will probably direct him to the standard handbooks of 
Greek palaeography, but on examination they will be found to be of 
limited usefulness. 12 Bibliographers will direct him to books on early 
printing or type founding, which, while generally including examples 
of ligatures in their illustrative specimens, rarely include discussions 
of them, their main concerns lying elsewhere. 

As it happens, the best source of information about sixteenth 
century Greek ligatures is to be found at the source of the confusion, 
in a certain class of sixteenth century books called alphabet books 
which printers who printed Greek issued at regular intervals. These 
books constituted a short introduction to Greek for students who 
needed to learn the elements of the language. The books were 
invariably of the same format and were often copied from one 
another. With few exceptions, they are uniformly titled Alphabetum 
Graecum; they are unpretentious, written in easy Latin, and content 
themselves with naming the letters of the Greek alphabet, explain- 
ing vowel quantities and classifying consonants, explaining proper 
and improper diphthongs, discussing accents and breathings, declin- 
ing the articles as sample paradigms, offering a table of Greek numer- 
als, and translating the ligatures into single-letter equivalents. They 
generally concluded with a few short samples of Greek for practice, 
most commonly the Paternoster or the Credo. 

These books are not to be confused with the more lengthy and 
detailed Greek grammars or syntax books of the day, which had a 
larger and more scholarly audience. The features of the Greek 
alphabet books, including ligature tables, were usually incorporated 
into the first chapter or two of a grammar. T. W. Baldwin notes that 
the Institutiones Linguae Grcecce of Clenardus was "the most frequently 

12 The most useful of these will probably be B. A. van Groningen's Short Manual of 
Greek Palaeography 9 (Leiden 1963), for its section on abbreviations and symbols, pp.43-7, 
and its selective tables of MS contractions on pp.44, 45 and 46. T. W. Allen's Notes on 
Abbreviations in Greek Manuscripts (Oxford 1889) is also of interest. Edward Maunde 
Thompson's Handbook of Greek and Latin Palaeography (London 1893), a standard item in 
most Classics seminars, is of little use. 



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Studies, 7:4 (1966:Winter) p.371 



WILLIAM H. INGRAM 379 

used in England of the Greek grammars," 13 and records that eleven- 
year-old King James VI of Scotland had a Clenardus in 1576, and that 
he had a copy of Beza's Greek alphabet book as well, both probably 
sent from France. This Beza may well have been the one printed by 
Estienne from which some examples have already been drawn. 
Clenardus was indeed popular as a text: the Short Title Catalogue 
lists editions in 1587, 1590, 1594 and 1612, but the British Museum also 
has copies printed in London in 1582 and 1600 and eighteen other 
editions printed between 1543 and 1590 at such places as Paris, 
Antwerp, Venice, Cologne, Frankfort and Lyon. 

Alternatively, the STC does not list, and the British Museum does 
not have, a single sixteenth century Alphabetum Graecum printed in 
London. John Brinsley, in his Ludus Literarius, a compendium of 
schoolroom practices first published in 1612, said nothing about 
Greek alphabet books, but urged that a child should begin his Greek 
studies with the "Strasburge Greeke Grammar." 14 The Greek alphabet 
books may have been largely a continental habit. They were much 
more a product of the printing house than the scholar's study; their 
pedagogical attractiveness is minimal by our standards, and most of 
us would shudder at having to learn Greek from them. But their 
value to us lies precisely in this home-made quality. In the days when 
these books were most popular, no "standardized" table of ligatures 
had yet been established, so the ligature tables in the alphabet books 
were often ad hoc productions. They represent a sort of compositorial 
free-hand exercise, each printer simply setting forth systematically 
the contents of his type case to establish a ligature list as best he could. 
For the more fully-equipped printing houses, the ligature lists 
would be copious, and attractive testimony of the quality of the house's 
other publications. Aldus had stressed the attractiveness of his 
ligatures by calling his table "Abbreviations Perpulchrae scitu"; Robert 
Estienne, who used his alphabet books after 1554 to publicize the 
French Royal Greek types, headed his list "Short-forms and ligatures 
devised for elegance as well as brevity" (Compendia literarum et nexus 
partim breuitatis, partim elegantiae causa reperti). The ligature tables 
can therefore offer a clue to the size and distribution of types in the 

13 T. W. Baldwin, William Shakspere's Small Latine &• Lesse Greeke I (Urbana 1944) 535, 
539, 540. 

14 John Brinsley, Ludus Literarius, or the Grammar Schoole, ed. E. T. Campagnac (Liverpool 
1917) 226. 



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Studies, 7:4 (1966:Winter) p.371 



380 THE LIGATURES OF EARLY PRINTED GREEK 

cases of various printing houses. Estienne's alphabet books list three 
times as many ligatures as, for instance, a London edition of Clen- 
ardus* grammar. By collating enough of the alphabet books, we may 
arrive at a usable table of our own which will prepare us for most 
eventualities. 

In the table which accompanies this article I have attempted to 
reproduce all those ligatures which might normally be expected to 
cause some difficulty for the modern reader. I have omitted the 
simple tied sorts, where two or more letters are connected without 
violence to their familiar shapes, for these are of interest only to the 
student of typography; and I have added variant forms of single 
letters when they are reasonably different from accepted modern 
forms. Sometimes a piece of type will contain a ligature formed by 
tying a single letter to a contraction, producing thereby a half- 
readable and half-confusing figure. At first I had thought to eliminate 
the clear first letter in such cases, and to list only the contraction, 
thereby avoiding a certain amount of duplication; but often the 
contraction requires the presence of a preceding letter for its own 
form, so I have decided to include them in their full form when 
I have so found them. The ligatures in the table were made by photo- 
graphing the originals, which exist in a variety of type sizes, and 
enlarging the photographs to a more or less uniform size, then 
collating and transferring them to the table, and reducing the whole 
for printing. Slight variations in the sizes of the ligatures are the 
result of a failure to be mathematically exact in the original enlarge- 
ments. Slight variations in thickness of line are the result of making 
different type sizes appear uniform. 

The following alphabet books were collated to produce the table. 

De Uteris graecis. Venice, Aldus Manutius Romanus, 1501. B.M. G.7581 
Alphabetum Hebraicum et Graecum. Paris, Gilles de Gourmont, ?1508. B.M. 

621.g.40(l) 
De Uteris graecis. Tiibingen, Thomas Anshelmus, 1512. B.M. 12923.b.2 
Alphabetum Hebraicum et Graecum. Paris, Gilles de Gourmont, ?1516. B.M. 

624.c.7(l) 
Ex Aldo Manutio de Uteris Graecis. Cologne, Eucharius Cervicornus, 1517. B.M. 

T.2236(2) 
Theodori Ga^ae de linguae graecae. Louvain, Theodoricus Martinus, 1518. B.M . 

624.c.7(5) 
Alphabetum Graecum. Paris, Christian Wechel, 1530. B.M. 1476.a.32(2) 



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INGRAM, WILLIAM H., The Ligatures of Early Printed Greek , Greek, Roman and Byzantine 
Studies, 7:4 (1966:Winter) p.371 



WILLIAM H. INGRAM 381 

Alphabetum graecum. Paris, Robertas Stephanus typographic Regius, 1539. 

B.M. 58.a.l2 
Alphabetum Graecum. Lyon, Mathias Bonhomme, 1542. B.M. 12923.bbb.39(l) 
Alphabetum graecum. Paris, Robertus Stephanus typographus Regius, 1548. 

B.M. 236.g.38(l) 
Alphabetum Graecum. Paris, Robertus Stephanus typographus Regius, 1550. 

B.M. 617.C.29 
Alphabetum Graecum. Cologne, haeredes Arnoldi Birckmanni, 1553. B.M. 

843.c.21(l) 
Alphabetum Graecum. Paris, Robertus Stephanus, 1554. B.M. 622.C.38 
Elementa Graecae Linguae in usumpuerorum collecta. Nuremberg, Gabriel Hayn, 

1556. B.M. 12924.cc.35 
Alphabetum graecum. Paris, Guillaume Morel, 1560. B.M. 236.g.38(3) 
Alphabetum Graecum. Paris, Thomas Richardus, 1560. B.M. 624.c.21(l) 
Alphabetum Graecum. Antwerp, Christopher Plantin, 1566. B.M. 12923.aa.4(l) 
Alphabetum graecum. Antwerp, Johannes Loeus, 1567. B.M. 4516.a.32(3) 
Alphabetum Graecum. Paris, Joannes Benenatus, 1569. B.M. 236.g.38(2) 
Alphabetum Graecum. Paris, Robertus Stephanus, 1580. B.M. 622.d.35 
Alphabetum Graecum &* Hebraicum. Paris, Paulus Stephanus, 1600. B.M. 

12904.b.ll 

In the preparation of tne tables which follow I was assisted by 
a grant from the Faculty Research Fund of the Horace H. Rackham 
School of Graduate Studies, the University of Michigan. 

The University of Michigan 
September, 1966 



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Studies, 7:4 (1966:Winter) p.371 



382 

(J of 
etf at 



THE LIGATURES OF EARLY PRINTED GREEK 

currcJ 

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* ai^ as in dl56 Si'xatq 



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ctjTfcJU^ airiartHfi 
cAa aX 
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3*Ti 5 

d|/ avn 

<to> avn you 



rt^ a^ 



c6o ao 



ddptcrroq 



»;^' 



acp tcrrou 
4js air 
^7TD a7to 

oc^e a7to 

<Op dip d/p ^ ap 

^o ^y> dp 

°^ aq as in *^/>^ wepaq 



.^ t. 



cto au 



<uXs 



auto 



c&oy c&/rv aurou 



, ^ X Y^P 



^CC/ fCU yai 

ycu; yaq 

fi )f YY 
re ye 
y\ ye 1 

A YeX 

fy ytV ^IV *{ev 

^47 Yevtxn 

^(>1 Y£ vtM fi 

^(ko Ye viH n v 

-^> y£$ Yep 
></ Yeu 
^66> yr\v 

y Yi 

^0 Yt'veTat 

>K Y« 

>^ YX 
>^t YP- 



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WILLIAM H. INGRAM 383 


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o^ 53 yo 


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?$ X W r? 




tP Ypa'wa 


o^K 6tcp0OYYQ> 


^CA YPt 


<fb 60 


X? Ypo 


Jb(" dorinri 


^f yu 


cfy> 6p 


><y yui 


< 6paxutf 


}^6f yuv 


5Ct 6pt 


yoo f&) fa> 


$£? 6po 


Shi 6a 


§^50 6 pa) 


S^xj 6a 1 


S\j 6u 


<}ty</ 6av 


<fty 6ui 


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5* Cj 6e 


St; 6u<; 


ty 6et 


c^a ey<» 


&?&£ 6e^ 


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^UJ> 6cup 


* etv as in Agy* Ae'yeiv 


<$\i 6n 


* eiv 


&Lu 6t}v 


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St 6t 




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a 


& <($, ^ 6td 


et<; as in ^0V YoveT^ 


« 


^ 610 


OX/ EH 



7 — G.R.B.S. 



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Studies, 7:4 (1966:Winter) p.371 



384 THE 


I LIGATURES OF 


EARLY PRINTED GREEK 


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<£ # ^ e 


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C^flCC e^ayiov 


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07ry eTteiSn 




% 00 


77t1/ e7teu 




«ty ©P 


'^7 U^ 67tl 




o90 P° 


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0/T ovres 


"S tv as in <pt/0"^ cpucftv 


^ ecrri 




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/i <#f ecrrt 




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(^o ero 




XS$& Ha9a> 


^y eu 




<£ £ >C*} & JS^ . 


^L> euQeta 




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£a/ \ r\v 




*J ^ Kara 


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¥$£. xepdnov 


9* ©a 




XVb xecpctXatov 


^tf/ Oat 




7>* 



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INGRAM, WILLIAM H., The Ligatures of Early Printed Greek , Greek, Roman and Byzantine 
Studies, 7:4 (1966:Winter) p.371 







WILLIAM H. 


INGRAM 385 


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x/> X/> H P 






/Xy uecroq 


X£$o xpa 






/U^> peer ou 


fco ku 






/L<J £t§t pera 


j^<: xua©o<; 






ytt6a/ p,riv 


XJU\ KUt 








X% xaSv 






^CP po 


/\# Xa 






/tu/ pu 


7)C x nrpa 






^1>U^ put 


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//Z^ puv 


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p v as in jxeii pev 


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& Secrrfi 


yttcW PCCV 






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/^y uap 






01) 01 OlOV 


fif* [iOC \u£xw as in 


oicj as in T rot<; 
oTq as in 0VKT OvnfoTq 


yi(5U/ pau 






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/x9aj peXX 
yLCj peXXcov 






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ov as in T rdv 


/«V ^ $ 


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INGRAM, WILLIAM H., The Ligatures of Early Printed Greek , Greek, Roman and Byzantine 
Studies, 7:4 (1966:Winter) p.371 



386 THE LIGATURES OF EARLY 

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oUlfytoTT avOpcwcx; 
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ort 
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QP6 OUK 

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CVT GOT ovroq 

73TOJ 7rai 
7n\o nav 

'Trr w Trap 
•GT^^ vT 7tapa 
'/T^ Tcapaue uievoq 
^Sr^^ ^ TraparaTtHO^ 
7TZCU 7tau 

<z&c zrf& Trfox nr ntpx 

It 7tepi 



PRINTED GREEK 
7rAj ttsu 

7Sd ^p ?P Tto 
77ZtJ^ 7T7re 

77737 7t7Tt 

777215 mxo 
vmroo TC7ta3 
'Z2f TTJ rtp 
fGp£y* rrpa 
*&£* 7Cpi 
/ETC? 7TpO 
'£T£? ? 7TpO) 
7H *Grj ITT 

7TV TTUl 

7TUO 7ruv 

7TO 7T03 

£jt pa 

£9 po 
^> Poq 
(9c (jt era 
cvif QfJL era 1 

<£ O^p QfJt CTav 



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Studies, 7:4 (1966:Winter) p.371 



WILLIAM R INGRAM 387 

(sif crap cari am\ 

Qfjj craura am\ aitr\ 

oC crB can cr7Ci 

cry <JB cret czav ano 

c3> cQ ore azrv anv 

a3c6 a 0a czz7Cc/ cf7ta> 

<0£ ^V <t^ ^ orOat c<T aa 

c&t crOe cjzc aaa 

a3v a©n cjw/ acxou 

outuu o9r)v osd\jJ acrav 

a3l a© i ajtt£ tftfaq 

o9A <?0X cut crae 

o5o crOo coy aan 

o3&> aQco ^n oat 

<j>l#1 crHri oja crao 

0X5 ctko <ajcy craca 

Oyt>U Crp-l Cf CfT 

G (p 0*0 9Zt ara 

OV orou ^0^ crrai 

COT an cpx*; crtaq 

CZZJT6 crra qvuu crrau 

czzjjX/ cT7rai <?t eyre 

cucrifJ anav <jtj arex 

am one <p\ arr\ 



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388 THE LIGATURES OF EARLY PRINTED GREEK 



St <*Tt 



'&" 



Tau 



Si 



gp crro *(cfju raura 



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qr> crrp T re 

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«y> ro 



n 



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Jg axe TV TV rou 

J@ crxet C6\y rou<; 

*^J cr x n (ftlpo rouro 

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Copyright (c) 2003 ProQuest Information and Learning Company 
Copyright (c) Duke University, Department of Classical Studies 



INGRAM, WILLIAM H., The Ligatures of Early Printed Greek , Greek, Roman and Byzantine 
Studies, 7:4 (1966:Winter) p.371 



WILLIAM H. INGRAM 



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ALP HA= 

BETVM GRAECVM VNA CVJK 
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Salutatio dtigelicd,Symbolildpofbli* 
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fkxg. 

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gwm,ui ix.HTh$mteY P <p4fx.n fbdma. 

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£(§H triwmfous. Item mfum medium M eft,d,ut 0e£g 
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ttH<> Anchifes,visofi<ft«i Nefbrides. 

Ktnutdturmc >ut K*K.oq edeus. Interdwnin 
fudm medidm , id eft,g, ut kgoB/©^ gobim&y/KV®* 
cygnu$ ^qudnqumzrcyctiusdicimus . item in p, 
Ut Ai/k©^ lupus. 

A mutator ml 3 ut 7r&&a§ VaUas , Ai/poc lyrd, 
7li?| lux. 

m tnutitur in m, ut y$<xjixM<xTtKo<> grdmmtticu$> 
siyLjiajkmma. juli\^opSjjh Melpomene. 

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f ttertttorin x>ut \imp$P Xenofyon, %imp, 
Xrrno/i. 

o micron, mutter in o br?ue,ut oXvtATvoqolym 
pus. I tan in u,ut oAojWI? Vlyffes.Stl frequens mu* 
totio eft o'mu in fine diftijnis, ut »ct/7rj©^ cyprus > 
Sfrup ©^ llomerut, 'fatop ilium . interdum in ejit yo+ 
Hr &nu, aMloLvffoq Alexander, Ka-nfoq aper, 

n iwasttttr mp,ut mcHrttpoin Pajipbae . 
Interdum mfudm afairatm , (Jus eft apud nos ph, Uf 
tfoirouop trotfmm . Item inrfuam meikm ,qwc eft 
*pud nos b, ut Wf o§ bums, afa+ anbs. 

P mutator in r, ut Jura; rhetor. Vbifdendum om* 
nem difHonem , que apud Grjccos. fcribimr per f m 
prmcipo diatoms, apud nos trans ftrri cum afjpufo* 
me, £ta Rfotf. 

x uertitur ks,ut <r'<rv<p&> fifypbus ♦ interdum 
in x, ut ouc^,aiax, w'sj/$ piftrix. ltem'mtjttcrttu* 
cite. 

r mutitor in t,ut Tfofet Troia, ramxAo^ Tdn* 
talus. Inuenitur etiam mumm m s,figmpr<ecedente> 

tplerumif;remnet 9 ut hf&wjxoz tiieronymus* 
cfvv&wfliop fynonymum • Tranjh etiam mu,utp6* 
jxv\Qs Kbomdusrf'u |o§ bum#v$fus, pus mus, 
tv'ah tule. <p uertitur 



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dm 3 ut a.a(pta dmbo. 

x-muHtur in &> ut j^f vV*§ Chryfes , xfutfoso* 
frO* Cbryfojhmts , xftso<$ Chrifius . Que Uter* 
quid hdbet figurant x no fori > funt qui putdnt cum fie 
fcribitur xptis pe r x er p fcribi liters Idling , cum 
ea qu<e x uidetur fitx>0*qu<r uidetur p fitf.Et 
ifudnqudm fire femper leqtmus in facris lit&is Chri* 
fhis fiefcriptum xptis , Grtce txmen fcribdturycum fie 
fcribitur : Idtine uero fcribendum eih per cb,fic Cbri„ 
flus, uelfic breuius , Chrus . Eodem modo dedpiuntUf 
mlH S y credenteseffe aforationcm hdnc Uteram H, 
cum fit h gr<ea uocdis , quae apud nos in c longum fie* 
quenttus mutator jifi^oti; lefus . Item quid Gr<tA 
ettdmfiefcribunt ltoy\,quod eB fimileno&r* dfoird* 
tioni,latini fcribunt lhefus 7 quod imperiti per a ford* 
Uonem fcribi exiftimitt. 

Quomaminfernwnm de dfyirdtione inddimus 9 

iUud dnnotttione dignwm exijtimuimus , dctvptam efi* 

fe dfrirationemnojlram, amo &l IWfc/ag nod \t* 

*H<°dccentibusgr<eds.NMittiddfidmficnotdth er 

1 pfiknfic <i . Quos decerns in unit comungentes Ro* v 

mm* 



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mint , ficeruk edm dfpirdtionem ,<[U£no$m grdndm 
fadis utimur Uteris* Qui tomen decerns nunc fire 
exoteuerunt dpud(3rtco$. Quorum loco iuniorcsbU 
fee ututur* ' ,ut (/Wfoc bdbedtfigurdm c noftrijic c , 
•JAh uero c conuerfifo ' . Ft bine puto nos decepif* 
fe dfpirdtionem , qua airpm fcribendo ut'mur . N<on 
fidddiderispfilen denfo dfpirdtionem ftcies, fed m* 
ffocM,qtmqudmttitttwjlr4 phtre$rc£kn,m,<]udm 
flexm fcribentes notont . Hdnc nos dfpirdtionem mo* 
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u 9 ut \vtToq Venttus&oopifa uefperd ♦ $ed frequen* 
ttr in noftram dfpirdtionem , ut vmv© - ' bymnus. 

* mutdtur m psjtt cu$io+ tthiops, Aliqudndo m 
h$,ut a ja+ drdbs,Z±vfr &> dbfyrtbus. 

n megd trdnfit in o bngtm > ut Sw ctvo§ ocednus 
%i<fl<a\\idoltM. PROSODIA, 

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Meofunttempord y perindcdc fulcra qufda tonorum, 
qu* Minatura itifyUabis prior* requirtint. Itafy fte* 
fabit doftus grammaticus: primum quanta fit fyUaba* 
hnga ne an bretusjongam dignofces, aut longa uoca* 
liy Hcoydutdifbthongo cUv&x,qu£omneslong<cfim 9 
aut pofitione ajtc§ <*|/£. 

toreuembreuiuocaH t o, fbio$ 
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tte fyUabarum aut long* fint , ut 7?oq> out breues, ut 
g>?Aog . Authoritate mediant arb'.trabere, nam er qu& 
breuemnaturauocalem habet, nonnunquam extendi* 
turyt apud Homerum p&\oq. 

VSVS TOworvm, 
Qu£fitu$,qui diftionis tenortaut acuto refponie, 
nut circunflexo efferendam. Sunt enim hi principals 
duo tom,& quifyllabis inferibuntur. 
ACVTVS 
toed poffidet, ulthnam, pcnultimm, dntcpenidti* 
ntfmfro<;&fiyivH$7l§iH.\vr(r$ . 

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locus eft ultima Swx/ 1 , penukima *2/xoc> 

GRAV 1 S 
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17 
ORAT I O DOMINICA. 

Ater nofter qui es in cock's Janfttficc* 
iu r nomen tuum ♦ Adutniat re* 
gnum tuum . fUt uoluntas tut, 

fnut in carlo er in tend * Pancm 
no&rum quotidianwn d* nobis hoik > CT maif te 
noto* debtta no&n % pent cr no; rttmttimus 
debitoribw nojlris » £t fir iWncrfs no* 2/1 

tentdtioncm, fed hbcra nos i medo* Amen. 
SALVTATIO ANGELICAAD 

SANCTISSIMAM VIRGINEAi, 

AVegrJtidpltn* Mam, Dominus tecum. 
Benedi{h to m mulieribus # El benediftut 
frufltis uentrit tut,poniam fuluatorcm pepfrijH *ni* 
mrum nojtmwtt* Atiietti 
SYMBOLVM SANCTORVM 
AP OSTOLOR VM. 

CRcdo in Dewn p*tremommpotcntem,faflofem 
codicrterr<e>Etin lefum Cbrifhm ftliunt 
em micm dominum noftrum, Conceptum ex fririd 
to fanflv 9 nation ex Marin uirgine , Paf* 

fm fub Vontio PiUto,mortuum crfepuU 
turn, Defcendentemad inferos > tenia die re fur gen* 
km ex mortuis, Afccndentm in cocks* 

B 



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DECEM PRAECEPTA DOMINI 

Q^VAE SCRIPTA HABENTVR. 

IN EXODO CAP. XX. 

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Scdentem in detfera patris omnipotentis* mde 

uentum eft iudicare uiuentes & mortuos ♦ Credo in 
jpiritum fanftum, fanftam ecclefiam catboticam* 
fanftorum communionem* remfiionem peccatorm* 
Carnis refurreftioncm, Vitmsternm. Amen. 

DECEM PRAECEPTA DOMINI 

Q_VAE SCRIPT A HABENTVR. 

IN EXODO CAP.XX. 

ET locutm eft dotmtmoe$fernu>nesbos,dicens, 
Ego fum domitm Dots turn , qui eduxi te de 
terra Aegyptije dome feruitutit. 

Non erunt tibi dij alieni prater me* 

Non fades tibi idolum , neque utlitu fwudacbrm* 
qu*cun% in alo furfm,*? qutcunq; in terra deor* 
fwn 9 er qttecunque in aquU fub terra. 

Non adorabis eos>nequc feruies eis. 

Ego enim fum demitm Dew turn, Tkwzdotn, 
reddens peccata patrum in filios m tertiam er quar 
tarn genemionem odio babentibut meter f Miens mi* 
fericordiamin miliaria d&igentibm me , cferuanti* 
bm prtcepta me*. 

No accipies nome domimDei tuiin tmojtonen'm 
mmdabit domkmaecipiememnomeneiuiin 
uano B # 



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Memento diemp&bfUormfan&ifictre em* 

Sex dielm operaberis,tT faciei omnia opera tut: 
At die feptimiftbbata domino Deo tuo. 

Nonfucies in ea omne opm tu>w film tmcrfi* 
\ia tu y feruui tm er ferua tua , bos turn 
crfubiugale twm 9 er omne itmentm turn ,cr*d* 
uenahabitans m te. 

Infex enim dxebm fecit dotmm calum CT terrm 
CT m*rc> cr omnia qu£ m eis^ er rcquie* 
uit die feptim*: propter hoc benedixit 

domixm diem feptinum, er fandificauu earn. 
Honora pattern tuwm er nutrem tuam, ut bene tibi 
fit , er ut longxm fis fuper terrm bonm , qum 
dontinw Dm tuns dat ubi.No occidcs.Nomoubabe* 
ris.Non furabcrti. No fdfo tefiificaberis contra pro*- 
ximum tmm tefUmomwm fdfm. 

Non eoncupifcet uxorem proximi tui , non cone* 
pifecs domum proximi tui, ntqut agrm eim 3 
nepe fcruum em * neque anciUam ciw, tuque 
bouem em > neque fubiugale em> neque ocmfupcUe* 
fiilem cm, neque quamque proximi tuifmt. 

B iij 



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CHRIST1 DECRETA APVD 

MATTHAEVM. 

AT ego dico nobis. He rcfijhtis malo fed quifm 
quis impegerit alapa in dexteram tua maxilla, 
obuerte itti er alteram & ci qui te ueUt 
in iut trahere ac tmicam turn toUere , dimitte itli 
ey patUum: er 5«i to adcgerit ad miUariwn unum 9 
abito cum iUo duo. Petenti abs tc,dato : CT 

cupientem mutuumaccipere tie aucrfe* 
ris . At ego dico uobisfidigite inimicos ue* 
ftros. Beneprccemini dcuoucnubut uos .Bene* 
faatc ijs,qui uos odio profequuntunorate pro ijs 9 qui 
Udunt er infctfaiuur uos 9 ut 
fitis filij patns ueftri qui c& in calls: quia 
folemfuum ixofirifinit fuper nudos ac bonos, 
& pluvkm mittit fuper iufbn er iniuflos. nam /? 
ddcxeritis cos qui ddigunt uos y quod primiwti 
babetisiNonne & Vublicam idem faciunii Et/i 
complcxifuerilis fratrcsucftros tantum, quid exinuum 
facitisWonnc er piMicam pc facium*Eritis 
igitur uos pcrfefthquemadmodwm pater uefler , qui 

in eqdis e^perfeAjus eSt. 

CANTICVM 
DEI PARA E. 
B fy 



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MAgnificitt 4mm mat iombtum ♦ Bt extimt 
friritus meus in deoferudtore rmo. Qui* 
refpexit bumiiutem dnciUtfu* > ecce am 
poQbdc fadicem me iudicdbunt oc$ gcmrdtiScs.OjjU 
fecit nuhi mgru qui potcnsefl > cr ftn&mno* 
men eius.Et mfericordiieiusingeneMionem erg** 
wratiorum , timtntibus eum fecit robut in 

bracbio fuo >difaerftt fuperbos cogitdtione cor* 
dis fui.Depofuu potentes dcfedibus, & extltduit bu* 
miles. Efuricntcs impleuit bow, CT dim* 

tes dimifu itwits . Sufcepit Jfrdiil puerum 

fuum,ut memorefiet mlfcricordit. Sicutlocutus fue* 
rat ad patres no&rosjpfl Afcr-M,er fenuni etui in 
£Uum.Gtoridpatri 9 cr filio, &fanftoj])iritui. Sfca* 
ffdt inprincipio er nunc tyfemper^ infecult 
ftculorum.Amen . CANT1CVM SYMEONI5. 

NVnc dimittis feruu tuu domine 9 fecudU uerbH 
tuum tnpdce.Qujii uiderunt octdimei fttutd* 
re tuum . Quod ptrajii dnte ftcian omnium populo* 
ru. Lumen dd reueldiionc gentty, & gloriiplebis tut 
ifrdciGlorid. 
5ALVTATIO AD SANCTISSIM AM MARIAM, 

SAlue regm mdier mifericordi* , uitd , dulccdo* 
crfrcsnojlrafdlue, MtecUmrmt 

B^ cxules filij. Ad te fufpirdtm 

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BTAOriA THS TPAPEZH2 PPO* 
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EXXAPirTIA META TOa 
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gementes & flentesinbaclubryndrm 
uaUe. Eia ergo aduocata noitra mifericordtt 

tuos oculos ad nos conuertc • Et lefm benedi* 
** ftum fruttumuentristui poftexilium 
hoc nobis oAendefi clemcns>0 pia, 
dukis uirgo Maria. 

BENED1CTI0 MENSAE ANTE 
DSGVSTATiONEM. 

CHrifte Dm , benediccibum CT potumferuo* 
rumtuorum : quoniam fanfius e$ iugiter nunc 
Crfemper er in ftcuU feculorum. Amen. 
GRATIARVM ACTIO POST 
DEGFSTATIONEM, 

BEnedi&us Dm,quimifer4ris, cr alisnos 9 ex 
largis donit tuis Jdqueex gratia cr benignita* 
tetuaiugiternunc crfemper cr m food* frcu* 
lorum,Amen. 

BENEDICTIO MENSAE ALITER, 

BTLncdicite,Vcw.omnc quod appoptum eft, 
cr apponeturper D« uerbumfanftlficctur, m 
nomine patris crfttjcr fantti fcirU 

M Amen. 

GRATIARVM ACTIO 
MENSAE. 



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19 

GKatias agimus Hbi mnipoms Dem 9 pro omni* 
bus benefices tui$,qui uiuis & regnas in f*c* 
U fdcubru.Pimen. C ANTIC VM ANGELORVM* 

GLoria m cxccljis Deo, & m terra pax, bontU 
mbut bona uoluntas • Laudamus te . Benedi* 
tww te. Adorarms tcGlorificamus te. Gratias agi* 
mat tibi propter magnam tuam gloriom . Domine rex 
cceleftit , Dew pater omnipotent . nomine f&i wig* 
rute lefu Cbri/fc, er [anftcfpiritus. Donune Deua 
agnus Dei,filiM patris ♦ Qjd tottis peccata 

tnundiitmferere nobis. Qgi tottis peccat* 

mundi, fufcipc deprecationem nojlram . Quifedes 
ad dexteram patris miferere nobis. Quonia tu es fclut 
fan&us. Tm es fobs domirms lefu Cbrifk, in gloria 
Deip4tris.kmen.OCTQ BEATITVDINES, 

BEati pauperes fpiritu , quoniam tUorm eft 
regnum cadorwn. Beati qui lugent, 

quonia ipp confolatione accipicttt. Beati mites >quonia 
ipfi hfreditatem accident tend. Beati qui efumnt 
crfitiunt iufiitiam.quomm ipfi faturabuntur. 
Beati mifericordes , quoniam ipfi mifericordiam con* 
fequentur .Beati mundo corde,quonim ipfi Dem 
tddebum. Beati padfici, quoniam Ij fSij Dei uocabm* 
tux. Beati qui perfecutionem patimtwr propter in* 



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fRtiam $ qucnidm iUorum eft rcgnum cvclortnu 
Bead ejiis cu probra iecer'mt in uos 9 & mfettMifue* 
tint y er dixerkt owit malum unburn aduerpa uos 
tnentientes, propter me.Gaudete cr exult ate, quowm 
mrces ueftranmlta eft in coclis. 

CANT'ICVM ZACHARIAE. 

BEnediftus Vominut Beat lfrael,quia uifitauit 
CT fecit reiemptionemplebiSLpix. El 

erexit cornu falutis nobis M domo t><ttud pue* 
fi fui. Sicut locutus eft per osfunikrum y qui i 

feculo funtpropbetarum em. Salutem ex inimicii no* 
ftris^o 1 de mnu omnium qui oderunt not. Ad fdeien 
dim rmfericordiam cum patribut no&rts $ cr mmora* 
ri tejhmenti fui fanfii. lupurandum quod iurauit ad 
Abraham patrenoftrtiddturumfe nobis. Vtjine time* 
re de mana mbnicortm noftrorum liberati fcruianm 
itti.lnfanftitatc & iuftitia coram ipfo , omnibus die* 
btunojlris. Et lu puer prophet* altifiimi 

uocaberis, prtibis enim ante faaem domini par** 
re uias eius. Ad dandamfcientiam falu tis 

plebt em in remijUonem peccatorwm eorum . Ver uifce* 
*ra mifericordU Dei no&rijn qfm uifitauit not met 
exaltoAUuminare bis qui in tenebris er in umbra mot 
tisfedentM dirigendos pedes no&ros in uiwptcis* 
Gloria patri. 



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PSAL&VS S AVID. p. .^> 

BEati qtwrumrenufpc funt iniquitates> er fyo* 
rum te&b funt peccata.Beatus uir 
cut Hon mpuubitdominuspeccatum > tiece8inorc 
tita dolus. Qupraam tacui tnuetcrauewit 

offa mea dum clamxretfi tout die. Quotum die 
ac nofte grauata e& fuper mrmanus tua 9 conuerfm 
fwm m eru/mnam dum configitwr mhi ftitu. ' 
Behftum meum cognitum /re/* er miujiuim meant 
non abfeondi. Dixi confttebdr aduerfum me iniufti* 
tiam mem domino , & tu remiftjti tmpieUtem cordis 
tnei. Pro fw orakit ad te amni$ f*nttu$ 

m tempore oportuno. Veruumcn m diluuio aquarum 
fnultarum y ad cum non approximAbut.Tu es refugitm 
meum a tribulation* que citcuniedit me, exultatio 
mea erue me k arcundantibus me.lnteUetthm nbi da* 
bo 9 & inftruam te m uia bac qua gradiens , firnubo 
fuper te oculos meos ♦ Nolite fieri fmt equus & 
mulw 9 qu\but non efl mieUettws. In cbamo cr freno 
yiuxdUs eorumconflmge, qui nonapproximntad 
te. Mult* fUgcUa peccatorit , fteratuem autem 
m domino mifericordia ctrcutuUbit . htununi in 
domino er exulute iu(li , cr glorianmi ormes rctti 
corde. Qlorupam. 



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ABBREVIATIONES PER.* 

fxdibrx fcitu,quibu$ frequentifltm Grc* 

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Liter* cjMndo feipfat figiunt, fuperptfit* (put* 
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mtiAy ut iafe/A 

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A L P H A 1 E 

TVM «G R A E C V M. 

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DIVISIO LITERARVM. 

Diuiduntufhae quatuor QC uiginti literate 
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Vocafes font (eptem, *> t> 9, i, o> tr, tt+Con^ 
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damSubiunrfiuat, t, v. 

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DE POTESTATE LITERARVM, 

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DE POTESTATE DIPHTHON 
GORVM PROPRIARVM. 

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DB.POTESTATE DIPHTtfOft 

GORVM 1MPROPRIARVM, 

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wif* harpyia* 
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tem,ut a>i/rs oftos pro 0/79$* 

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perpukhr* , ijwttw frequcmifiime 
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ORATI O DOMIN I C A, 

PAtcr nofteif qui es in codis/andificetur no* 
men tuum, Adueniac regnu tuum.Fiat uo* 
luntas tua ficut in code &£ in terra* Panem no 
flrum cotidianum da nobis hodie.Et remitte no 
bis debitanoftra,ficut& nos remittimus debi* 
tortbus noftris* Et ne nos inducas in tentatione, 
fed libera nos imalo* Amen* 

Salutatio Angeli ad fandifltmam 
Virginem* 

AVe gratia plena Maria* Dominus tecum; 
Bcnedida tu in mulieribus ♦ Et benedi* 
dus frudlus uentris tui, quoniam faluatore pe* 
perifti animarum noftrarum, 

Symbolum iandorum 
apoftolorum* 

CRedo in Deu patre omnipotentem , fa&o* 
rem codi & terraeJEt in Iefiim Chriftum fi* 
hum eius unicu dominum noftrfi , Conceptum 
ex fpiritu fando,Natum ex Maria uirgine,Pafc 
fumfub Pontio Pitato 5 mortuum QC fepultum, 
Dcfcedente ad inferos/Tertia die refurgente ex 
mortuis,Afcedentein codos,Sedente in dexter 
ra patris omnipotentis, Ynde uenturus eft iudfc 
care uiuentes & mortuos* Credo in fpiritum fan 
dumjnfandam ecclefiam catholicam^andoru 
comunionem, remiffionem peccatorum, Carnis 
refurredionem,Vitam arternam« Amen* 

A S Cantl 



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Cantieum detpara* 

MAgnifacit anima mca dominum* Et cxul 
tautt (piritus meus in deo feruatore 
mco ♦ Quia refpexit ad humilitatem ancilte 
fosc,cccccnimpoiihacfelice meiudicabunt oes 
giiationes* Quia fecit mihi magna g potes eft, 
& fan&mi nomen eius* Et mifcricordia cius 
fa gencrationcm & generationem,timentibus 
cu. Fecit robur in brachio(uo,difpcrfit toper* 
bos cogitatione cordis fiu\ Depofuit potent 
tes de fedibus, & exaltauit humiles« Eforietes 
impleuitbonis,&diuitesemifit inancs. Sufce^ 
git Ifrael puera luu,qt memor edct mtfcricordi^ 
oicut locutus fuerat ad patres noftros,tpfi Abra 
ham&feminieiusinaeuu 4 Gloria patri,&filio 
& fando fpirituU Sicut erat in principio, & nuc, 
dC (emper,& in fecula feculorum* Amen* 
Gantus Symeonis* 

NVnc dinjtttis feruu tuum dominefecundfi 
uerbum$Jju in pace* Quia uiderunt ocuU 
met falutare tuum* Quod par aft i ante facicm 
omniu populora. Lumen ad reuclationem geii* 
tium,& gloriam plcbis tusc IfracL Gloria* 
Salutatioad lan&ifsk 
mam Mariam* 

SAlue regina mater mifericordfae, ui ta,da!ce^ 
do, &C ipes nofira falue* Ad te clamamu s 
Euac exules fill] ♦ Ad te fufpiramus gemen* 

KsdC 



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Us & flentcs in hac ladhrymarum ualle* 

Eia ergo aduocata noftra,mifericordes tuos octi 

los ad nos conuerte* Et lefum benedidum 

frucHim uentris tui,poft exilium hoc 

nobis oftende* Oclemens* Opia, Odulcis 

uirgo Maria* 

Bencdidio menfe antedcguftationem* 

C^Hriftedeus,benedic cibum& potumier* 
Quorum tuorum,qmfandus es iugiter nunc 
&femper,& inlecula(cculorum*Amen+ 
Gratiarum a&iopoft deguftationem 4 

BEnediftus deus,qui miferaris & alls nos 
ex Iargis donis tuis, idep ex gratia & beni* 
gnitate tua iugiter , nunc & temper & in fccula 
feculorutn* Amen* 

Benedidiomenfaealiter. 

BEnedicite*deus«omne qcP appofitu eftfiC ap 
ponetur, per dei uerbum (an&ificetur,in no 
mine patris $C fill] & fandi fpiritus* Amen* 
Gratiarum adio menfie* 

GRatias agimustibi omnipotens deus£> o* 
mnibus benefices tuis, quiuiuis & regnas 
inieculafcculorum.Amen* 

Canticum angelorum* 

GLoria in excelfis deoJEt I terra pax,hotbus 
bona uoIuntas.Laudamus te,Benedicimus 
te« Adoraus te.GHficamus te 4 Gfas agimus tibl 
jppter magna tua gloria. Dne rex ccsleftis, deus 

pater 



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pater oipotens* Diic fili unigenite left! Chrifle^ 
cC fan&e ipiritus* Domine deus agnus dei 3 filius 
patris ♦Qui tollis peccata mundi mifercre no* 
bis ♦ Qui tollis peccata mundi) fufcipe depreca* 
tionetn noftram*Qui fedes ad dextera patris,mi* 
(erere nobis+Qm tu es folus fcftus.tu es folus dns 
Iefu Chrifte 3 in gloria dei patris. Amen* 
Ofto beatitudines* 

BEatipauperesfpiritu, quoniamillorutn eft 
Regnum Coelorum* Beati qui lugent, 
quoniam ipfi cdnfolacionem accipient* Beati 
mites,qmipfihaereditateaccipient terrac* Be* 
ati qui efuriunt & fitiunt uifticiam, quoniam 
ipfi (aturabuntun Beati miiericordes,quon jam 
ipliuiiiericordia coicquentur* Beati mudi cor* 
de, quoniam i pfi deurn uidebunt* Beati pact* 
fid D quoniam i) filtj dei uocabuntun Beati qui 
perfecutione patiuntur ^pter iuftici5,qm illorfl 
eft regnS corioru* Beati e(Hs 5 cu probra iecerint 
*nuos 5 &inie*5fetifuerint ) & dixcrintoe malum 
uerbu aduerfos uos menticntes Jppter me* Gail 
dete & exultate, quonia merces ueflra multa eft 
incoelis* 

F I N I S« 






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ALPHABE 

TVM GRAECVM. 

LiterarumGraxarum appellationes & 
pronunciationcs. 

Dc earundcm diuifione, & fingularum co 
cinnitateex Dionyfio HalicarnafTeo. 

Menfium Grascorumdefcriptio, &co!la- 
tiocumLatinis. 

Omnia nunc primum ex optimisau&ori- 
bus defcriptajG.Morelio au&ore. 



A&JTfycU <p§0vV&$ (TQQtoTgcU. 



PARISIIS 

Apud Guil.Morclium,ex aducrfo xdis 
RcmcnCum. * 5 S ?• 



■) 



m^OS^H 



tlTERARVM GRAECARVM 
numero cjuatuor & viginti, 



Ffgura. 
Aaoc> 

vytr 

A2LcA 

HZ ' 

HHW 

11 
Kfc 

aA 

MfJL 
K ?(; 

?! 

oo 
p e 
tt7 

YU 

x xz 
*4 



Nomcn. Sonus. 



A€At06 

E 4*Ae'p 

2.HT0C 
©HTfc 

Ka/^7rpc 
mD 

» n* 

O (JJLKgOf) 

n? 
p'S 

Tax) 

*r 



Alpha 

Vita 

Gamma 

Delta 

E pfilon 

Zita 

I la 

thita 

Iota 

Cappa 

Lambda 

My 

Nv 

Xi 

O micron o paruuni 



bjUcofoni 1 

g 
d 

c exile 

2 

i 

th 
i 
c,k,qit 

1 

m 

n 



Pi 

Rho 

Sigma 

faf 

Y pfilon 

Phi 

Chi 

O niega 



P 

r 

f 
t 

y exile 

P h,f 

o magmi/ 
Ax 



4 ALPHABETVM 

D iphthongi d uode cim ,8c quid fo n cnt. 



cu 


X 


ct 


a 


au 


af,au 


H 


A 

1 , 


« 


ilog. 


CO 


olong, 


it) 


ef,cu 


VI 


y long. 


01 


i log. 


w 


if,iu 


cv 


ou,u. 


av 


of,ou.' 



Quae fuperfcribuntur Uteris. 
^-Acutus 'Aoycrt in vl.fyl. 

Accetus 3 Grauis x 'Jtfy > m penul. 

C.Circuflexus ~ ima-^ aut antep* 
cAfper ' 6p5-j Initio diftionis a 
Spmtus c Tenuis * iydoS vocali incipien- 

! tis,autaf. 
Apoftrophos^auerfio^mutiiatiouc^otacft 
fimilisfpirituitenuiin fincvocis,ad pronun 
oiationemque nihil attinet: tantum indicium 
eft abic£ta»literx, propter vitandam fcquetis 
vocalis collifione,7rotf i/*o\/\pro *m$cckp.w. 
Qua; fubferibuntur feu adfcrU 
bunturhteris. * 
PunSum Iongiufculum fubferiptnm tite- 
risaH<a,fic,#H& ; iotaeft,&defignatdiphth5 
gos efle, fedimproprias , quae pronunciatio- 
ns alia non requirut,qaam fi fimplices eflent. 
Poft literam punftum ind^cat fententiam 
abfolutam<fi fuperiusvel duplex fcribatur^tio 
in totumab'folutamjfedadhiic pendente. Se~ 



S UIUC 



GRAfiCVM- j 

in icy* cuius item ad literx finem mcbra ora- 
tionfs diftfnguit,vt apud Latinos. Aha tame 
rationevctera exepfaria ret/net* nam fere ad 
finem abfolutaefentenriae fuperiuspunftuha- 
bent. . ^ 

v 5 notacft interjogationis,quae eft Latinis ? 
Exemplum inquoadlegendum finclitera- 
ium nexu compendioue pueri fe exerceant. 

BYXH' KTPIAXH' 

T& to ho{JLcL o'ov.i\3irto nGcctriMt'cC) 

<TCV'yiVHQHTCd TO Q^HlJiX <TCV,&f kylv 

gjxifi KCuizrlTHStyM. TcyhgTcpH/xGcpTcy %- 

o&iAircag H/ivy ' ttccl (xh u<rinykn$ h{jlccc he 
T?ii$xvixw.kK\QL fiscu H/^a; cr&i io\f zro~ 



tcrr 



* • n 



€ ALPHABETVM 

CONNEXfONES UTERAt 
rum St compendiaria fcnbcndi ratio , quaad 
prnatum fcripturae Graeci vtuntur. 

cJ a ^2 «? or *# 

#M #AA *& €i> % cv 

0U cu (to «(i Sr ou 

OCV' ** ^(r ::; CO) pfJ- 7T& TTOf 

<x^ at; *,y Hp, tto; zrau 

>oc p/pc ,3* $€ , sn^ sr€f 

y& }£& $* - *-^ ^ ^ 

?w y^ ^) > < Bo srA 7rA 

<$k . «A* J ^t/ r flu ■ *srar ?rzr 

D ^K' V 5^ £&" TO W& 

<ft * </!e ~"' Y^Cf ' KflC rTT^C - -?r$Cf 

%J $<& ^ Kara -?r^i -sj-fo 

SW^> JliVg M AA '7T^> Z7f6) 

$6t «Af/ A# A# ^ zrr 

^ cflfo tya [acx. tx* zrco 

Stw dlffj ^coa /x#t £gc p^ 

#«| U /ut ftt & erx 

ci i\> [M (jli <roa ecu 

u$i izrl yui (jl(a Qcv fay 



GRAECVM. 7 

ScaS^vtei % e-% Jf$ t? 

GJJ C7T CW <F&) 7& ICO 

CuJX ' 07S0L TK roc *ffit q 1 Ta\J 

CuTXA 0"&0U 7ZU 1 ) TCU \P~ v 

GZFt. C"&$ ~TH TO If VI 

Gutt Wit r du) y : THfi ad vy 

GUI "1 Czrl T^ THfJ C\ZSti? VZTi^ 

cm CTs-o c&'fi in; cczsi vzri 

arc* ' auto % ri ycc yjx, 



cs ■ - its- s >> to ^a x a/ 

ajot <r<ra & r> to to ^ \ ^f 

J3C : * &-T& T - toD 4ote 4 a/ 

sou era* ^\i tcjc 

. Exerrplum in quo* pucri ad difcenda com- 
pcndi4 2c nexus liccrarum d exerceant. 

AE'kA ENTOAAi 1 0EO^ 
cweVoi'TO/.Vot ^oi?T^oj7jA!xjjU^oi/\ 

cy7r^?Ktu)vV<Jc co/tc?;, cv<fle#H A#l^££ 

A '4 



8 ALPHABETVM 

cl Lit, 6&r<:cp/Aa^^iTa'7r^Va//x^TO^. 
qvAh^h scvouot kvqIx rrd\c\T Govibuft 

idwStdt niw nuiyx* iW QcZQcoTZLnxytoJ- 

vol KV(>ltol$ 3\& <sv.lv irvincex zrccfj t^rou 
ti coj'th <nV,?9 tjoV ff*,^ H dvyotm'f? <yv , oWTf 

^ ( 0K TtCUjli&KVKPd 10)'* C<ZR%vft&» GOV ./8 
TiimDCl THHlX^Ct THt£dlO(XH t <%g,C$\?P&j*0~ 

,SiojTov2LlJlo<ri6Qi. • ; 



GRAECVM; 9 

DE SINGVLARVM LITE- 

,rarum appellatione 8c fono 
Grsccarumliterariimorigine ad Hebracos 
rcferri lpfas appellations .,& ordo indicat. 
A 
A'A;$<x;ex Hebraeo nomine Aleph , deinds 
alepha,& (yncope alpha^nomen habet* Sono 
fefpodet A' Lacinq.In id enim vertitur, <£c<xf 
afiaKO^afracus./uctJra , mufa:' ita & Gracci a 
vertentcs in cc munnt.Cxhrsxu<r<zp. Ab hu 
ius liters figura aU'quoties coniunfta penta- 
gonum pentalphaappdlarut, quad quinquies 
alpha rppetitum.Quoniam aut'em prima lite 
rarum. eft ,ideo alpha primum feu caput 8c irii 
tiumdieitarJnfacris,Ego fuma& &,id eft, 
prihcipium & finis. &Martialis, Alpha penii- 
lacorunijid cft,primus. : 
' * b " ' ; " 7' 
BHi«,ab Hebr^o beth nomen habet^addi* 
taformah liters a^HTa.rcfpondecuconfona 
ti,vt nuncproferimus.olim vtb enunciabar, 
codera cnimfono him Latinurt»,& $b\ Gras 



io ALPHABETVM 

cum prolata fuiffc a*tate Ciccronis, ex epifto^ 
Ja ad Pactum coIIigiturjIib'S. Cum loquimur 
term^nihiljinquitjflagitij dicimus:at cum bi- 
nijObfcocnum eft Ci r xci$quidern,inquies. Ex 
verfu item CvsLuni^nAi^o^ooczs^ itfj&x- 
2»p€h€h Afc)/a^£a:cA*'£ei.Ille,inquit,tanquam 
onis bebedices incedit. Be vocemeffe ouiu, 
non ve,nemo ignorat.Non dubium alium fuif 
fc eius fonum quam nunc eft,forta(Te iam no- 
bis ignotum,& medium inter v confonantem 
& b.Nam PlutarchuSjDioDj&alij hiftorici jp 
b latino nunc 6 vfurpant,vt cum fcribunt Fa 
bius y <potJ&M y Tibcrius y T&itW.nuc pro v co* 
fbnante,vtcum pro veium 6hAc£> fcribunt, & 
pro Valerius CaAfcf/o?, quod & ivcthigwkri 
ptum inuenitur.Neruij J Hf&oi J & c • ^ 
r . / r 

ra/i^xlongius recefsit a nomine Hebr^o 
Guimel. Inde appellator digama AEolicum, 
quafi duplex gamma,quodLatino.rum.F & (o 
no & figura refpondet, quo vtebatur initio di 
ftionum a vocali afpirata incipientium,iteqi 
in mcdio,G vocalium concurfus effet , flO n, 
Hfon dicctes , vndc noftrumouum^ScoiX 
o f i s,vnde ouis. . Sonat vt g Latinum- &fo$ y 
hagios-fi tamen fequatur alterum y,«.%,aut |, 
fonat mollius,vt n refcrrc vidcatur > an r £A@->, . 
angelos.avayxalo^anangscontfic enim k po# 



v 'GR.AECVM; il 

j,fonatperinde acnoftrum g.arK^(5c,anchu- 
fa.Av/y|, lynx. In quibusGcllmsnegatverum 
n effe, feci vt appellat,adulterinutn. Nam fi ca 
Iicera eflet,inquit,Iingua palatum tangeret. I- 
taquetraduntVarronem voluiffe vbi nospo 
nimusnanteg vclc.vetcresloco n,g Gr^co- 
rummore fcrip{ifle,vt vbi nos angu1us,illi ag 
gulus^agguilla^aggeruntjagcepSjagchifes^c. 
quae omnia Accius poetainfcribcndo fertur 
obferuaflfe. 

A 
aCAtbc, a nomine Hebrso Daleth feu de- 
lech,vndc deletha,8c fyncope delca.Nam afpi 
ratio Hebrseorumtenukerfiepe alioidioma- 
te redditur.fonatvt noftrumd,niG quod vo- 
Kint quidam rnollins pronunciari,vt ad £ acce 
dat«Ab eius figura album </lfcA.TO&£muncupi 
turn eft,& figura triangularis 2.$h"p{Mc. 

E 

E *J,Actf,i.e tenue,pecufiare nomen non hx 
bet. Nam Hcbrads nulla eft litera qu;e huic 
refpondeat. nifiafpirarjonem Hebrseoru mol 
lem accipias,He,quam Grarci in voealcm mu* 
tauerint€dicenteS)Vt hethfrra dixenwt. 

Tenue& exile appellator excollatione cu 
jf,quod veluri €€ duplex eft. Valet e breue:tame 
inuenitur redditui Grsecispro i Latino bre- 
ui^Britanr^eTOvV.Domitianus^o^^aw*' 



l% ALPHABETVM 

Capitolium,Ka7^T^A<C(;. ,, , r 

2 :^m 

ZHT&. y a nomine Hebrfco zujn longj'us re* 
ccfsic.valec,vt omnesfcribtit,<j; Jl^.fd. quod 
inpronunciado tamen nonexprimimus ,fed 
potius inuerfo ordihe d f.Nam £ecf>t>£0r, nou 
fdephyrus fonat, Ted dfepbyruspotius.vt nee 
*£ litera duplex fp fonac,fed pf,itcm f ,non fc, 
fedcs.Adde^Fabiusiucundifsimahanc cflfe 
Grarcis litera teftatur, qua nulla ait„apud nos 
duicius fonare.Latini hac afciuerut inter fuas 
pere^rinim . aliquandotamen duplki ffrcd^ 
dunt > '7n3C^Ct) ; patn{ro dicentes/ 
H 

Utdc olim nota fuit afpirationis,Vnde $% 
in notis numerorum antiquitus apud Grqcos; 
w^jton^id eft,centum'defignabat,qu£ prima 
erat htera rocis t\iocby , quam turn fie fcribe- 
banr 3 H EKATON .Vnde ctiam Latini fuam 
afpirauone funt mutuati.Poflea crc.fcente li* 
terarum numero 5 acafpiratione litpris iliper-* 
fcripta^pro c vocali loga v fur pari epepitrquod 
quidem nunc i longi fonum refert . Vete T 
ribus fine dubio e lemgumfonabat :quod & 
voxouiufiHjdcquain jShto diximus indicat. 
Non enim bi oues fonant,fed bee, quafi. e du- 
plex fir.Varroquoq;aitde,R.e ruft.a^SXy'ca- 
pras a voce appellatas efle 7 $ met enuncient*. 



GRAECVM- i? 

Antiqui Grasci qui res Romanas tra&arut, fc 
~rc vbiLatiniseftelongum quantitatefeuac- 
centu,Kfcribunc. Nam PompciuSTrc/nTOfQ-' 
dicunt,Aurclius,oafHA/or. ItcmqucLarini w 
Grsecum in elongu verterunt. Demofthcnes 
cnim dicur^quod illi (/lHftoo5tvwr,Demctrius, 
quod ilii JIuia£$m. 



Ohto ab Hebraro Tbetb } addita formatiua 
a,3?T0c, valet th,i.t afpiratu , vt rcferat quad 
anferis ftrepitum-^a Jc^theatron, 

I 
f 5TO,ab Hebrxo Jod , T pro d vfurpatol 
valet i noftrum. verterunt etiam i nonnunqua 
quod Latini dixerunt per e breue . C^terum 
apud Graecos nunquam confonas eft vt apud 
Latinos: ita quod inaliis Iinguispcr iconfo- 
nantem cffertur,pluribus fyllabis efTerre co- 
guntur.Nam Hebraei Icfuh diffy-hbice pro* 
nunciantjGrsecitribus fyllabis ih<t?S\ Lnini 
Junius tribus fyllabis , Grseci quatuor enun- 
cxant,itfA/c?.Iunius,ioLWf. 

K 
Ka/zrcra,3b FebraeOjCaofeu Capri, valet c 
noftrumjtern k,feu q.K>!for^era . Nam quod 
Latini per qefferunr , Gr^ci per % redc^unt. 1 
Quiritcs,Kiiif/7it«Torquatu's,7rpK0ua2r, Sc 
fine i/jAquiliusjiK/A/Of.xtccum o, Quintus, 



1*4 AtPtf ABETVNl 

Koi'vYtf .Eiiis fonus non mutatur,vte apud La-i 
tinos> quaccunquc vocahs fequatur. Port yfo~ 
nare vt g ? in y admonuinius Jnucniutur Gr$- 
ci noftru c per y reddidifle, Kx\6AlQt pro Gal 
binius.ff iyay&q 0/ pro Sicambri . 
A 

Aa^CJbeexHebrseo nomine Lamed, vndc 
lameda, & fyncope intcrpofito jS, Ao/^Scftx. 
Valet 1 noftrum* Gracci aliquando n fequcnte 
],per \^/^6(Jkcranftulerunt,Man!ius/vU«AA/o^ 
fcribrntesolnucriiturtamen 6c/jloc\ioc apud 
Plutarchum.Ab huiusliterae forma Aa^&Aoef 
t/tftffigufadi&aeft. 
M 

tdv longius ab Hebraeo nomine Mem reccf 
fit. Valet m noftrum. Moleftalitera eft in pro 
nnnciando,fi finiat di&ione.ideo Graecisnu^ 
ladiaioineaterminatur,quod & ait Fabitis. 

N 

tft/ ab Hebrseo Num ctiam abeft nomine. 
Sonat n tacinu* Fabtus delitcrarueuphonia, 
Quid,inquir,qti6d pteraq* nos ilia quafi mu- 
giereliteracludimus m,qua riullfi Grsecever- 
bucadit?atillrpiucunda& in fineprqeipue 
quafi tinniente illius locoponu^quae eft apuct 
nos rarifsima in daufulis. Quo ties ante g aiit 
c apud nos ponitur,Grarci reddStperj/jCpfo/r 
K0/,pro Franci fcribetes.arfJrAor,^) angulus* 



GRAECVM- *S 

Si*ab Hcbrseo Sin duSum videtur . Latini 
nomcn inucrt imus ix dicentes • Sonat x , Cmc 
cSjaliO^axioSjLatinJ rcddunt aliquadoper C 
O 

O /JUK?cu,pecu!iare nomcn nop. habct:nam 
Hebrseorumlitcranon eft huic refpondens. 
/x^KfOfJ dicitur, ideft, paruum^dcollationcm 
cum6>,ideft,cumomagno.fonat vtd brcuc. 
6ecc,t!ieos. Graeci quod Latini per u brcuc di 
cunt^aliquandopero reddut: Publicola cnitn 
TOzrAwoAjcdicunt,& Numitor ,*c/xiTO£. 
n 

n7ab Hebraco Pc nomcn habct . Sonat p 
Latinum.TOT^, pater. . 

P*6? ab Hebrseo rcs loftgius rcmotum no- 
mcn habet. Valet r noftrum , & apud Gra»cos 
perpetuo initio afpiratur: St in medio diftio- 
nis geminatum prius tenuc eft, poftcrius afpi 
ratur.Ica quodnos Komadicimus^Graeci fi 
(ah fcribunt. 

X 

2iJf/xa: a Samcch Hebrsc^fafta quadam li- 
tcrarum mutationcac traie&ione. Sonat f La 
tinum. o'&TVg6? 9 htyrus,'z?iCi , Ci)y,Pi[o* 
T 

Ta\/apud Hebrcos idem nomcn Habct 



i6 ALPHABETVM 

TjffcuTau-va!ettLatinu,7niT?rf ? patcr.?i ta.* 
men praxedat vfortn mollius,& qiiafi d,Wlf 
TO,panda. quod fit ad vitandam vocis afperi- 
tatem. (Indus cnim fonat, fi panda quam pan 
ta otnnino proferas, 
Y 

Y 4* AcVy tenue > fimp f ex nomen tion ha- 
l>er-,nec Hebrans litera eft quae huic refpon- 
deat. Valet y,quoda Grsecis mutuati funt La- 
tini,vnde & y Grascam vocant, qui etiam hac 
literam in fuum fermonem traducentes per u 
rcddiderunt/ri,tu,o , L>e,{iis.Gr<xci quoo-, La- 
tfnumbreueu reddentes,ufcripferunt .Ro- 
mul 9 ,f^ut;Acc.Tigurini > T/^t/^vo/,Faufta!u5, , 
(pou>S\/?l o? . Tenue dicitur collationc cum di- 
phthongo impropria tj , quae ampliori voce 
quam v proferri debet, 
$ 

$~nomen habet ab Hebrseo Phc , quod Sc 
pe dtcitur,eftque illis vna litera. Valet ph, feu 
f L2tinu.(ro$/^ropliia.(fof,fur.Sicenimtraf 
feruntLatini . Grxciquoquenoftra nomma 
Gra?cefcribentes,prof 5 <£fcribnt.Fabius./pa 
C/o;.Figulus,<}5/r^Aoc.Signifer > a'i}/f/^f. 
X 

X?apud Hebraeos nihil habet quod c5 par 
fit . Nomen formatum eft admodum -m <pi y 
& c.valct ch/eu c afpiratum. Lattni eadem fi- 



graecvm; 17 

giira fuum ix notant : vnde error /cribefidi 
xfius natus eft ♦ x enim Latinum fimile eft chi 
Gr£co,& p latinum rho Grazco. 
Y 
Y? nee ab Hebrseo nomen habet ? fed ad for 
mam 1^7, ^niominatum eft* Valet pH 
a 

& fJL(yoi } o magnum . fie dicitur collatiorte 
cum omicro,i.paruo feu breui: valet olongu. 
gHT&f , rhetor, avMMttr, A ntonius* 
Dediphthongis propriis. 

AI diphthongus fonat x Latinum. cc'tccfjx^ 
uum.xou&g ,Cxfar.Gallice bene exprimimus, 
cum dicimus, faire,plaifir, & melius vtranquc 
literam pronunciamus in aider,main,(ain.La 
tiniolim quoque aiprosfcripferunt :vnde 
aulai & terrai diuifim remanferut,& alia apud 
veteres. 

At; 

Av fonat affeuau,u confonante>id eft,me- 
dioquodam modo inter v eonfonantcm& f # 
Id fonat quod au in aue,detraftoe. Quam La 
tmi habent diphthongum au$Gra!ci perao e- 
nunciant,& illi contra . Aulus , ccuAo£. <JU> Ah, 
aula.ClaudiuSjKAoo/ c /!ior.Fauftus i (pa2s , oj' 

EI 

Ei nunc vt i longum proferturiquod faiffc 
teporc Ciccronis ex voce bxni Latina,& Gre* 



iS ALPHABETVM 

cajSivei vfitatum conftat.locum eiusinjSci- 
tauimus.Traduntveteresvbiilongueflet,Va 
lerium femper ei fcripfifle,itemque vetuftio* 
res Latinostextarequein vetuftis infcriptioni 
bus bac fcripturam,Celcberrimeis veis.Pari- 
fini fonum huiusdiphthongi referunt,cum vi 
num dicunt du vein, & cum famem , feim 3 Sc 
cetera. 

Ei> fbnat ef feu eu , vel potius medt'um eo* 
rum:id prorfus quod eufonat in eua 5 a detra- 
Qo.Aliter Latini fuum euproferunt,quod ta* 
men Grxci per (b reddunr.vt & Latini &j per 
eu # £ufO?,eurus. Teutones^Tev/'Hiv^Aliquada 
pro u vocalut/fcribunt. Lucius, Mvtuc?* 
Oi 

O/ nunc vt i longum profertur-videtur o~ 
lim id fonaffc quod Gallis oi , vt cum dicunt 
moindre,aymoit 3 choifir. Latini per oereddut, 
(po?(o0?, Phoebus* Kfora"^,Croefus. Graeci item 
oelatinumperoj {cribunt.Ccelius^o/AiOf.Pae 
ni,7roivorqu2B etiamfcribendi ratio vt oi pro 
ce pingeretur,veteribus vfitatafuit , vtadno- 
tant Grammatici • 

ov « 

Ov nunc profertur vt li Italicu, id eft, ou« 
c^iAoj/^tbuslogous .Latini nuncnohabet 
diphthongum quae huic refpondeat- Tradunt 



graecvm; 19 

tamen aliquado pro u longo on fcnptum ab 
antiquisfuiffe. Mirum eft v hicaliterfonard 
quam in cut fivfi&vjiv.non enim vt cut af pro- 
nunciamus 3 fie ov of,fed u feu ou^cum analo- 
gia ov pronunciadum fuiflet vt ou in ouis,de~ 
traftois.Grseci fere hac diphthongo reddunt 
vocale u Latinum^Tullius , TjarMio?. Iunius, 
iWe/3£. Brutus 5 jSf vTz$4temquc v confonante 
crefcentenumerofyltabarum* Valerius enim 
Zv&Xiqioc fcribunc.VarrOjOU^^^.Heluetij, 
eA&e&oj,quod etiamPlutarchus fcribit iX~ 
Cnr\iOi . Etiam vbi b eft latinum , GabiniuSj 
ycuvfvioc,3.pud Dionem . nam alias }<5cEw(Gp 
fcribitur. Vnde Gclhus,Gr3ecos ? inquit, rion 
tat? infeiti? arceflb,qui cv ex o &t> fcripferut, 
quam qui €J*ex£ Su.illud enim inopiafeccrut, 
hoc nulla re fuba&i.Latini v Grsecorumper 
u fuum reddunt ,d%KvJ\t<flH$,Thucydides.\v • 
KSpf@-\Lycurgus. 

Dediphthongis impropriis.' 

Improprise dicutur 5 quod non'duos phtho 
gos feu fonos in vnum coa&os faciant , fed v- 
nius tantum literae fonum edant,praeter tov 8c 
tf t^quae vtriufque liters fonu rctinent,fed Io » 
Hum propria funt^aliis G raecis impropriq. 
cc 

«,id eft alpha iota fubfcripto,fonat vt a 16- 
gum ; <J>jA*V ,philia ? 01im iouipfum Uteris ad 

B a 



lo ALPHABETVM 

fcribebatur, non fubfcribebatur, fed minori 
forma quam pr^cedenslitera'quafi dimidiatu 
crat lornx,. Qw« fcribedi ad latus confuetudo 
rcmanfir in (cribedis Uteris capitalibus Ar 
itainaliis Hi } n»* 

K 

K,id eft,ita iotafubferipto , fonat vt i Ion- 
gum /ra&/*H,titimi. 

CO 

Ct) y \d eft,o mega iota fubfcripto,fonat o 15-. 
gum.T^eT Aoyqjo logo . 

H 

t|,id eft,y pfilon & iota,fonat y longum.a?- 

^tf<x,harpya* 

«u,id eft, ita & y pfilon. edit plene diphtho 
gunijiffcuiujvconfonantc Ionum propria 
diphthonguseft,fa<5foex €u,fcinH mutato,q3" 
illis peculiarc cftAuypiAliv, ifchomin. 
&v 

tov y \A eft ,o mega & y pfilon , edit & ipfa 
plenum fonum 3 of feu ou/vt quod eft in ouum, 
dctra&oum. 

Dc iis quae fuperfcribuntur iireris, 

Accentus faftigianonnullis dicuntur,alii5 
acumina,aliis apices. Hoc nomine trcs habet. 
pcculiariter fie appcllatos Grseci : acutu • qui 
i finiftra in dextram afcedit,Syllabas diftio- 



GRAECVM. S 

num ocxupat>vltimam,^oc.DenuItima 3 srtfN 
&K£aTOf.antepenultimam 7 ocv3gCo7rt$* 
Graucm,\quiafiniftrain dexrram defeen- 
dit. Syllabam occupat tantum vltimam.T/c. 
Circunflexum**, quafi exacuto&grauicom* 
pofitum^quodLatinifuafiguraapcrtius often 
dunc\ Syllabus oceupat,v!timam^ou*& pc 
nuttimam jSoaT€. 

Spiritus 5 qui flatus funt ad initium di&ionu 
a vocali incipientium. Eorum alter tenuis,al* 
ter afper dicicur. Duplex eorum figura eft. v* 
na qui capitahbus Uteris adiungutur:& ij ex H 
iri duas partes fe&o fa&i videntur.dextra pars 
tenuem,finiftra afperum refert. Afperum flati 
lem Grillus appellabat, htenuem exilem-p 
Altera figura femicitculos refert: vt 'tenuis 
fit. e afper. Notandum autem AEoles vitan 
tesfpiritus afperitatcm,dijgamma fuo F pro 
afpi>atibneufos.vtprol(imfa,F^a27^adixe- 
run^quod nos per v confonantem reddimus, 
vefpera. Tradunt veteres Gnjcos accetuum 
&fpirituum nous non fuperfcripfifle Uteris* 
fed tantuaccentu afperum figura liters H vna 
culiterisfcnbebat 5 HEKATON«Eius in vocali 
tantum vfus eft 5 8c in Iiterap initio di&ionis 
&in medio geminata, vbi prior exili, pofte- 
rior flatili fpiritupronuciatur.Cicero ,Quin 
ego ipfe,inquitjCumfcireqiita maiorcs locu* 

B 3 



rt'i ALPHABETVM 

tos effect nufquam nifiin vocali afpiratione 
vtercntur s loquebar fie vt pulcros , Cetcgos, 
triumpos,Cartaginemdicere.Aliquando,idq$ 
fero , conuitio aurium cum extorta mihi Veri- 
tas eflec,vfum loquendipopulo conecfsi,fcic 
tiammihircferuaui. 



DE LITERARVM DIVI- 

fione Sc vocalitate exlibro Dionyfij Halicat 

HocAov^SU^oi^eioc ^ y%<xyuyLQt r m'y(>ct{i{X(30u % > 
ftffiy&Wcas fori <ru{AcuvtTou>?oiyficc <Rt % 
o% m&$6MH ThoymcnviK 'nvi^y J\^ujSa 

QWCpcwocf ft to? Kiri/uS^jOC (pfflHevtu^QM 
<A£to Aoi'jm.vdcvTix. JlQurigotJllticctf Iuj *tW 



GRAECVM. 23 

to? rl )6j sor^etac/tas Q&m SlLooJ/JLeic.QcovHW 

Toufy irtffvriQCsyjboui fop ounpfeAH h[jxQqvx 

$?)foct& \cwrd Si xag cy ts j£ ou*/ cwriTt - 
A5f.a(po)va 2.e 0(9: oifc to? TeA^a?,CL»Te to? 
H/xc7*Adar <£&&•&$ ex*! ^cc^kouuToc^i^kri 

$G)y<flkiK<P&V&TCU . 

vcu ^iouu>uJ\$KOt to 7ratvTO ^ cpct/i'ttr soyeicc, 

HOCT < c<TK(bcLc&CU 3 TO Ac/TO €K TDUTZ^^ . C i </74. 

TitSifrtJiKHsM Qcvtercuits, Kcu q>iAo<ro<pi'otc 

TBk Cp\ QtoVHf #?}&$, ty TO (TUtt&tf&WtQ'TOL CtV- 

-' hi 3i toi/to S'f/ oLZidfJLcy £', <Avc f*2/ yuoc \ 

B 4 



24 ALPHABETVM 

ka KaAScnp. ix/tpc&ve?) b tcwtx itdcvloc^oe^ 

ttASc %U(jLa l L<dhZ>9, r fi t$ yX&ozm i6\i\) nifty 

tio&ssw? b &&%&& h Gqccxiw teyoySLt/a£l 
^K0WTe^/xi^7rAw)/M7jvfl;Va:TT)^© <&* 

Wrap </1h WQcdtw, v$bf &i J9 tpwihjJnJlklw oc- 

terct&ict'olt lUHgicptoVcJ ri & xou azrai/Iovi 

Tap iyoidvvum. Myvmi $$ ouuoiyofxm r si 
(jLocing USt ir Aefrop, xac <r zrv&!/j.ocTig ocvq (ft 
fo/^IW ^7r5i? ^iroyfawov.c/I^T^opc/Ils'H ,ori 
k«to 'zrf^l'riu5jSa<r<p^ y Xax&m igu'Jlei ify 

to t> ?ojua:,;t0u7itf^s"lMei ra %^/Aw, tIu/t* 
^rAwraJ 7> 7r^D/xa t^jl t cutf ctoiMCfj mm* 

TWL.iSl&i HTVyVUTW S' i/.TER^jt $$ ttuTftTft 

%e/Aw <tus"oAhV rwtfxivHc oc£to\oyx , Wis- 



GRAECVM: i $ 

Aiccysyn\oy. 

% 7>(;cfl€ <Auflifx« s o-Jlifcmt :#$ sro/u* k£5t 

kgTHgwi^Moy.qcdvyiivT&yftouv y^uucJ- 
TriyccwmQvo'u* 

H c /ou(pa>v&p D weJle.oRTO ^5 y>y ScpO/ilp 
ovrajj ou)?ffi[^tdy XhyocTxAoi^ n A © s & © 
7> v t p ?9 S o\ J/a Jil 2jarAa,TO,T€ { kous' 
| >9 S' 4«<AJ^Aa- 9 hirxcriy cuutol.'h <%^-r>euv 

^ulv&v aMnAcr,^ !Jltcuf<pQv\w \sH*&mcvtviv 
h <%& t> x^f^ t&*xip ^ v °w y&m<>0J™y,w 

Jin wrap ugu'rloo uh Xkl to Jli&Acc *ffi oc- 
TjAvyA-mJlh (JLzltyvoi SiWrn^jfl^.. 
Aopfeffi^e^ <floJcS WfTfcAeiW. ht7& </U to a- 

yi&ougynx^y- iti(pCdnnzu Jl\ caJ^'inocsoy 
"ptcvcflt M 2tvoc ^oirty. 

To ySJ A ,1 s yA&cjw irtss 7>y ov^omly avi 

SVC/Aim, (3 <£ CCQTH(>!cc$ fUM%d(rH$ S' -TTV^fjia. 

&£, <%& <fll <ff? $eo3fc)yQy nfylo{iivou t 



%€ ALPHABETVM 

^ Qd\OVT&(JCLVlWClJ.tVH$. 
'. ,toc/le<T,c^ ^J }/AaOTH? <Tfcs(&J&yOtA.iw$ 

civoy <nZ9? £^ wgwubyfi Jll -&v(\jfjux&$ ^ ^ 

rrcl \oi-mH[jl(p^voc /JUK^y T^^Qd^ &y 4°- 
^^j^I^^ M^ uiM^dvcuy?* <r, ^rS(J </te ocr 

y^mi&Jr&y ntutya>my. 

kulctrmx Jll 00% h{io(to? Kiv&y n\w ockoLlJ 

hfucp&wy rhvttvTOLToy . fa^twet Jll S' ? , xoi 

Sl&ll3nst to JliK'ffi gtotktvoov GtXJW%OUlribcCj 
tc>t$ fJLfy S 1 v,K€^5c2>^2.ar ^TiAoitDTO cisvj 
H^ouf. &>£?* cftfc xoa -aHc/teff to <t,0 d-srAeo v«/« 

Ao(/HAonw^<$a^r7feo5z^ </IoK#(p&w6 ff'tffi 
j/^tcff. sffifycuv 7ru\cu2>y cvjavlcaf IwZvTi L U~ 
vt$c(ju%$ty7fc<pv?wyt4MW*&vi A* cLocsiy 
[ax$ op$vL$ o'A#p imfow). 

Tqtuy Jll *P ci^Atoy y^cyLfjLOCTZ)y y oi2iH Jit- 
zrAci KaA^Tsa , # %(Mc*Aoy njlfaj tU» ccKoiiy 



I f IGRAECVM; %f 

<r zrTlyo , u£ty/jLC[)aj£(fl'tJlasi *^t\oey ovto£/ 




(TiCC </l£,70,7fc <J> £> &' % XXXJ? Qd.KQlVOC JllctU. 
CpCffJ,TD,Tfc ^©T'fi Xj V Jl. tKCfavoi'TVU At CC'J 

<?ffi Z't&s cy Thorny mWte. l*icc £{ cc& *^PT %& m 
ySU r (hy ccurFft t>' ?r , Stjicrh M to <p, /^rov «fle 

G^T%6p.[U<XySs SLvTH <TV%vrtul*tZy yf^cij.- 

[juzr&y oLQ>&vccyoiJ.o{6p %&(j,odt Myosin Coy^r 
c&m(>%cc7rtlo[J.(vHf,iO) rny SziitoJloy ccuth 75%-* 

(TV c/Ie 7D S^fXiO'otfJll ^ izrtKCiVCy V e/CaU7H 



x3 ALPHABETVM 

T(>icl c/I^toAo/W &* &$d>vtop'K(fijou £j 

7s$ -nvSiiAodtjri k £) to x *9 ™ y%ovJ\<ul rati 

lilt TtJ ^Sm\ 4iA£j AiytTvu ,to </t£ ^ Jbc^^r, 
7T) 2ie yjJLi^tcx B fivmfb tqvt&ij. k^U^c^ 

Jl&sTtpctM o&tiircpiXcuiikcLt cflioge 4AS* 

WTz\yfibs<r TeAeforara mou \k&*& . 

QVORVM VERBORVM 

. fenfuseft, 
Initia vocis humane & articulatae,nullam 
ampliusadmittentia fc&ionem, flint quae ap- 
pellamus elementa 6c htcras Jitcras quidcm ,q> 
lineis quibufdam notentur. elementa vero,q> 
vox omnis originem ex eis fumat primum,iti 
eaquepoflremumdifloluattir . Elementorum 
autem atque litcrarum non vna omnium na- 
tura f fed earum inter fc differentia eft. Prima 
quidem, vt : Ariftoxenus muficus cenfet 3 qua 
alise voces conficiunt 3 alix ftrepitustvoces qui 
dem quae vocales nuncupantur, ftrepitus aute 
rcliquas omnes . IJifferentiafecunda eft ,qua 
litcrarum alia: per fe ipfsq ftrepitus quofdam 



GRAECVM- 29 

cfficc'rc poffun^ftridorejaut fibiHum^excrca 
tionem ,aut quae funt id genus fbnorum alio- 
rum fignificantia: alize autemfunt omnis ex- 
pertes vocis &ftrepitus,ncc£ fe ipfae poflunt 
fono proferri.Et has quidc mutas nonulli ap- 
pellarut,reliquas verd fcmiuocalcs. Qui au- 
tcm tres in parte s tribuerunt primas & cleme 
tares vocis vires , vocalesquidem nominaue- 
runt,quas & per fe ipfse vocem edunc , & cum 
aliisiuftscjfuntq; perfcabfolutse. Scmiuoca- 
lcs aute ,quae cum vocalibus quidem melius ef 
feruntur,per fe vero deterius,& non perfe&e. 
Mutas vero ,'quaeneque pcrfc&as ,neque fc- 
mipcrfe&as voces per fe ipfe habet, fed cum 
aliispronunciantur* 

Numerus autem earum quis fir,non eft fa- 
cile adamufsim dicerc:cum & ca res maiori- 
bus noftris dubicationcm multam attulerit. 
Alijenimtredecimexiftimarunt omnia cflc 
vocis elementa, reliqua autem ex eis compo- 
fita efle . Alij plura etiam quam viginti qua- 
tuor,quibusnunc vtimur. Quibus dc rebus 
confideratio grammatical arti & metric*, 
fi quis velit , etiam philofophiae conuenietior 
eft .nobis autem fatis eft, qui non pauciores 
quam 24,ncque plures ponimus, demonftra- 
re vocis initia,quaequeei accidut diccre/um^ 
pto a vocalibus initio. 



,30 ALPHABETVM 

Sunt vcro ex numero 7:dua* quidem Ion- 
gse,« Sc 6>,tres biteporanea^a^quae & pro* 
ducuntur& corripiunturrqaas quidam bitcm 
poraneas ,vt dixi,alij mutabiles' vocant. 

Pronunciantur autcm ex omnes artcria co 
hibentefpiritum, Scorefimpliciter confer. 
matojinguaque nihilmoliente/ed quiefcete. 
Veruntaraen quaslonga*funt,&exbitempora 
neis quas produ&e*efferuntur,fpiritusfiftula 
dtftenfam & continuam capiunt tbreues vero 
feu quse breuiter enunciantur, concifim,& v- 
no fpiritus l&u^arteriaque paululum mota,ef- 
feruntur.Eariim igtturoptimq funt,& vocem 
fuauifsimam edunt,& quae longa: funt,& ex bi 
teporaneis quse efferendo producuntur : quia 
diuturnam vocem edunt,& fpiritus tonum n& 
intercidunt* Deteriores autemfuntbreucs, 
aut quse breuiter dicuntur : quia vocis exiguae 
funt,& fonum veluti caftrant. 

Earum quae longse funt ', vocalifsima eft a y 
cumproducitur.enunciatur cnim orelargiter 
didu£to,& fe furfum fpiritu in ccelum effere- 
te. Secunda eft H , quia inferne* ad linguam 
infimamfonifequentis impetum fuftihet, fed 
non furfum,oreq> mediocriter aperto . Tcr- 
tia a . in ea enim os rotunde componitur ,$c 
hbiacomprimuntur,fpirituquc oris extremu 
percutitur.Ea autem minus vocalis eft i/.'nam 



GRAECVM- 3* 

•labiis comprefsis infignitcr,fufFocatur,Scan- 
guftus fonus emittitur. Poftrema omnium eft 
/.nam circa dentes fpiricus pulfatur,paululum 
apcrto ore ? & labiis non clarum fonum eden- 
tibus. 

- Ex breuibus autem neutra bene fcnat,fed 
minus o, quse vocalis eft male fonans.nam os 
melius quam altera difiugit , fed ifium propi- 
us arteriamfumit.Ac vocalium quidem litera 
fumeaeft natura. 

Semiuocalium vero ifta-Nam cum ofto fine 
ex numero, fimplices quide funt quinque 5 A, 
faVgp'.tres duplices,£,f ,4 : quas appellat du- 
plices,autquia funtcompofitse 3 £ quide ex <r 
& </I:| ex k & o*:4 cxv& o\qux alia; aliarum 
interu'entucorrumpuntur,& peculiarem vo- 
cem capiuntraut quia locum obtinent duaru 
literarum,ad conficiendasfyllabas aflumptse. 
Igitureafumfingulis duplices prseftantiorcs 
funt fimpltcibus , quia funt aliis maiores , & 
propius perfe&as attingere videntur: inferior 
res autSm fimplices, quod earum fonus in to- 
nos breuiores contrahatur . Pronunciantur 
autem eafum fingulae hoc modo, 

A,lingua in caelum erefla, & arteria cohi^ 
bente fpiritum. * 

/u,,ore labiis compreflb } & cum naribus vi- 
cemfuampartito. 7-v 



■jt ALPHABETVM 

vjinguafpiricuscurfumocclude'nte , & fo* 
num ad nares traducente. 

^extremo linguae fpiritum referiente , 5c 
in coelum iuxta dentes eleuante- 

G y linguafurfumin caelum redu&a, fpiritu 
vero per cius medium gradiente,&circa den- 
tes tenuem & anguftum expdlente fibillum, 

Tres reliquq femiuocales m'ixtum accipiut 
ftrcpitum ex femiuocalium vna,qu# eft <r, & 
tribusmutis^quaefuntto, c/l,*sr. Eaefuntcon- 
formationcs literarum femiuocalium. 

Poffunt autem nonfimiliter aures commo 
uereomnes.Eas ehim permulcet A,eftque fe- 
miuocalium fuauifsima.exafperat autem f ,ca- 
rumque qui cum ea eiufdem generis funt, ge- 
nerofifsimaeft. medio vero quoda modo quae 
per nares proferuntur afficiunt,^. , & v,quas 
veluti eornutosfonosedut:infuauis autem & 
iniucunda eft<r,& fiabundauent,valdemole- 
ftaeft.vtdetur enim fibillus vocem potius fe- 
rinam &brutam attingere,qu£mrationalem« 
Itaqueex veteribusnonnulli ea raro&cautc 
vtebantur.funtetiam qui odas intcgras fecc* 
runt fine vllofigma* 

Cxteru er tribus aliis literis,quae dupliccs 
appellantur ,£ aures magis quam aliae dcmul- 
cct.nam| interuenienteK , &4 interueniete 
zr,quac dua; tenucs funt, fpiritu reddit . Haec 



graecvm; ^ 

autem tacitefpiritu denfatur 5 eftque fu/gene- 
ris generofifsima . Ac de fcmiuocalibus qui* 
demtot fint di£ta . 

Ex nouem autem quae mutse appellantur, 1 
treslencs funt,tresdenfa:,&tresmedjar.ienes 
quidem^zr/rrdenfsecp^fl: communes cum 
vtrifque 5 ),.6,£A.Proferutur autem carum fin- 
guise hoc pa&o : 

Tres quidem labiisfummfs vrtf&c'&m ore 
compreffo prorumpensexarteria fpiritusfc 
cxpedit .Et ex iis quidem tenuis eft zr , denfa 
(p,ambarum media ^S. eft enim altera tenuior, 
altera autem denfior. Ha?c quidem vna eft co 
iugatio triumliterarum mutarun^qu^efimi- 
Ii conformatione tenuitate & denfitatedi- 
uerfeenunciantur. 

Tresaliae profertintur lingua ori fummo 
adnixaadiublimiores dentes, deindeafpintu 
fubpercu{Ta,eiquc exitum circa dentes concc 
dente^imirumr^jZ. differunt autem &hsc 
denfitate &tenuitate.ex iis enim tenuis eft r, 
afpirata r$,media vero feu promifcua </T. Haec 
fecundacftconiugatioliterarummutarum. 

Tres autem reliquaemutse efferuntur lin- 
gua verfus coetumiuxtaguttur erecbt,Sc arte- 
riafpirituifuccinsntc^quse funt k, ^y, con- 
formatione inter fe nihil differente5,praeter- 
quam quod Yj tenuiter profertur, x aerate, 

C 



34 BE MENSIBVS 

y moderate, & medio quodam inter eas mo- 
do* Itaque harum optimae funt qnae multorfe- 
cundx, qux mediordcterrimsequse tenui fpi— 
ritupronunciatur.hxcenim folamfuam vitn 
habenf.afpiratae vero,fpiritus quoque addita- 
mentum , vt propemodum ex perfeftifsima: 
fine 

MENSIVM GRAECORVM 
deferiptiojeorumque cum Latinis collation 

Grascorummenfescum Romanorum men 
fibus,nec dierum numero, ncc initio fupputa 
di conueniuntrquod illi ad tuna* curfum co 
putarentur , Latini ita defcriberentur 5 vt ad 
folis curfum annuum quadrarent. • 

Primus menfis Grxcorum proximus erat 
folftitioseftiuo, inchoabaturque prima noua 
luna quae proximc folftitij diem fequcbatur: 
qux quia die quodam certofingulis anWsno.* 
occurrit y perpetua menfium 8c dierum ratio 
Graecorum cum Latinis coniun&orum prae- 
fenbi nequitmcc ob idfolum,fedetiam pro- 
pter vndecimdics Jcquadrantem^quibus La- 
tini nmenfes totidem Grxcorum exuperat. 
Annus enim menfibus Romanorum defcri- 
ptus,355diesc6tinet:Gr9coruaute,3^4.Ita- 
que cu neutra fupputatio ad folis curfii plenc 



GRAB CIS. 3f 

accedat,Latinoru tamenpropjus,quippequa2 
diei tancum quadrantem, aut paululo minus, 
relinquat: quiquidem qustuorannis fingulis 
diem unum conftituit,facitqueannum biflex 
tilem,id eft,maiore vno die reliquis. Gr?co- 
rum vero fupputatio prater quadrantcm vn- 
decim dicsomittit:qui ia oftennium^o dies 
faciur.itaque Gra:ci oftauo quoque anno trcs 
menfes dieru triginta fingulos intercalabanr* 

Annus ergo Grsecorum cum fit tantu354 
dierum,& mcnfiumduodecim,necefleefttr>e"- 
fes inaequalibus numero dicbusfuifferfexqui* 
dem 19 dierum 5 8cfex 30. 

Fercur autem Solon primus poftremum 
menfisdiem ftatuiflc appclladum hlw vfcoc*: 
fcquenrem autem v^/xkuocj^quimenfisfeque 
tisdics primus eft. 

Alterni itaque menfes erant 19 & 30 die- 
rum. Qui autem vndceim & quadrans rclin- 
qucbancur perannos 8, todies conficiebanr^ 
ideft,tres menfes,quospoft duodecimum mc 
fern anni f<23T&6ouVsvTD£ adiungcbant,& itx 
6oA/iuot;?appellab3nr. 

Caeterum,vtdiximus,jnitiumGrsecorurn 
menfiuquoniam idem non eft quod Latinoru, 
hincfit vt ideGr^coru menfis nuncvno,nuc 
alio Latino nomine a do&is redditus fit^quod 
quidemexfequcnti defcriptione patebit. 

C % 



3* DE MENSIBVS 

Sumatur itaque poft folftitium aeftiuu, pri- 
ma veo^Ut^noua luna:& illic primi Graeco- 
rum metis primus dies notetur, & rcliqui de- 
inccpsrficque qui dies diebus refpondeanc > & 
qui menfes menfibus,apparebit. 

Anniitaquei549,folftitiumaeftiuuproxi 
me fequens wpilwfo fuit V 1 1 Cal. Iulij,id eft, 
2f dielunijihincaufpicemurprimummefcm. 
Sed prius intelligendum eft Gnccos menfem 
in tres decadas diftribuere.,quarum prima his 
verbis [jLlijub$lw(JLiMjcci\nda t jxlwQ$ /xi&otw^ 
W,tertiam ^tok^Von^defignabant: qua- 
fidicasmenfisftanti\mcdij ; 8cdefinentis.De-. 
indeprimae decadis primum diem viofxlwibcyy 
fecundum 2.Qi(>M i^xev Vertiam'j/'rfto '- 
SK[A.ivv 9 Scficdeinceps vocabant.Secund$3u 
te decadis primudiem^^Tfioltjri JlincL/JLt 
<roi!vTD?,fecundum JKhrigcw (M Mace Sccser. 
vfqueaddjioJ<fo,feuejKOS'[u) . Tertian decadis 
pnmum dxc^^corlw uihetKoJJli, vcl zrfcorLu 
fxiToc #fcacftK,fecundum, 2.6uJi£cu>iJfieiKGcJlii 
feu fJLiTccdiicifix,8cc. Vcl etiam primum^dic 
appellabantjinftitutione Solonis ,vt ferun-r, 
JIzkcctIw Cp6(vQVV>g>kcudutn dvoJ'dw (p^W- 
2tf,vfque adpoftremum eodem modo : quern 
tvtw ty via* dicebant.Sic ergo annum defcri- 
beSant. 



GRAECIS.^ ^ 37 

PR IMVS MENSIS. 
K'^'TQlAfixtdy dictum $o erat,vt impar 
pari numeronotarerur: par vcro imparl, fie 
cnim tradunt. 

i KX(j.lwfcc^ vii Cal. Iulij . 1549 

t <fl&jrigcckct/jLii?v vi ^S Iunij 

3 J/tW tSCC/A&VX V 17 

4 TfcTOf 77* fca/4€v# iiij 28 

5 7tfi[A7j7Hfcct/Av0V U) 19 

6 fX/nWotfxivx Pridie 30 

7 IGcfloiAukociJLivx Cal. IuK \ Tul- 

8 oycfloHka,{A.(vx vi z 

9 civ&THkcciA&tv v 3 

10 ZiKUTnlscc/jih^ iiij 4 

IL ZT$&7Ho3fiAiY&lXiO'OUuZ>$ llj 5 

ii (flA/T6facd8ic/!6ia PrJd* 6 

13 JmaSlJliKa Non.Iul. 7 

14 TfcTo/fTHaJK <AeV^ viij 8 
ij^zre^zrTuoSii.eKa vii s> 

10 
ir 
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iff 

2.4 1&/1o/*h$iS/ww xv 18 



iff ?KTH oift c/l^Ka 


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17 l6c0O/jWu3JJWVt# 


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iiij : 


1$ d/VCLTH uM Jliv.CC 


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ti JltadcTH (pdivovns 


Idus Iiif." 


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23 oyJlcwCpflivor&f 


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3$ DE MENS1BVS 

15 2jtFw(J>3/ifOV&5 xiiii i_9 

3.6 zr((jLzf\n QQivcvZe xiii 20 

27 Tercif7HCpc?^ovZ^ xii 21 

28 yhn (pQivovTQf xj 22 
25? (/I&leg^c cpfliVoyTBc x 2$ 

30 ttUtyvici IX 24 

Dicieur& 2t dies zrfO>T« fc^r* elitoccfli, feu 

feu JKkjTipOL (AinxeiKcctix 5 &ficdeinceps vt 
diximus. 

SECVNDVS MENSIS- 
wmyeflvi&y 2pdierumeft. 
x vx/jlUvIoc viii ijluf- 

2 Z^fafVa^s/ vii 26 

3 ^nfljYa/tfvK vi 27' 
4. TifoJ^hpcixm v 28 
5 vrifxzfi h tYajU&tf iiii 29 
5 eKTufra/iew iii 30 

7 \&Jib{.wlsct[xiw Prid. 31 

8 ore/low fra/jiw Caled.Auguft. 1 
,9 c*Wtw fcaftlv* iiii 2 
10 </l^KaTHJs"^lv^ iii 3 
ii ^^THttiScflfoa^ffoiJf&f Pridic 4 
12 iAJl^a^l^eKa Ncnse 5 
j 3 Jmi-nlMiiX viii % (5 
14 TflcJ$Ttii7rlJ\iK0C. vii 

1$ TzrlfxT^.lzriMngi, vi 8 

\tf lull) in) JliKCt y~ 9 



GRAECIS. 39 

iy l&JlofAU ml JlUct iiii JO 

18 onflow Varl </ll«a iii it 

19 WVoJT»$'&l2LiKCC, Prid. i£ 

2.0 eiKflfc Id.Aug.^ 15 

zr c*W7H<ffl/voif3f xix 14 

ii oycfloH ^flivovTO? xviii 15. 

2^ l6c/lo/ww (J)8/»ov7t;» xvii 16 

14 SttTHCpfl/wro; syi 17 

2J TziyxpM <pfl/vom xv 18 

27 "J* 7 " tpflAov^ xiij 20 

28 J16ut{?x QSkcvw xij 21 
2c? ewGveas xi 21 

Dicitur & 21 dies srf dm cuS ekadlJ , feu 
tt^coth {JLtT dKci$oc y vx. fupra. 

TERTIVS MENS1S. 
Bon^QOlMCdfj 30 dierum. 

1 vM^lwlx 

2 Jl&jTiaxi&c/jihcu 

3 T*iTHisK/JL{vOV 

4 TfcTafTHjYa/^VOV 

7 l&Jlo/jw Jsa,ttlvJ< 

8 o')/</icw kccfjilvx 

10 JliKoJT.kocfAiv'* Cal*Sep.i Septemb. 
u ^^TWi^ic/lka/>te(roiLy7T)p iiii - 

C 4 



X 


*3 


ix 


*4 


viij 


*> 


vij 


26 


vi 


2-7 


V 


23 


iiii 


29 


]i J 


30 


Pridie 


51 



4 5 DE MENSIBVS 

11 <AA>T.oJSi Mux Hi 3 

13 ^muM china, Pridie 4 

14 TfeTafT.ofiijlex/a Non.Sept'f.Septcm. 

15 TskiKTST uSi'Xiw.ct viil (J 
16' \u.Wu$\£kMOL vii 7 

17 e6</U*zr] cflfcKa yi 8 

18 ifJlcmzrlMtiCC v ^ 

19 civaTHezyioftenoc iiii 10 

20 dKoc/f iii a 

21 (A^roc/th <petfo*&c Pridie 12, 

22 ciraTH <$>«9<icv&£ idusScpt.i3 ScptcmJ 
25 onflow <p6Aompf xviii ja 
z+ifiAPlMQdfav&f xvij 15 
25 wniCpG/vorrcf xvi r 16" 
26" zrfaislyiCpGfoov'w xv" 17 

27 T€T<3Cf*ni'cp«^AoF , rof xiiij] 18 

28 ytin <p6ivov%$ xiij 19 

29 <flft/T€p a QSiwr>$ xii 20 

30 evHXjvea xi 21 
Dicitur & 21 dies TsrffiJ7» ccJ&i mdcchi ,feu 

TFgCOTR fJLtT eiJidi&xfJt fupra. 

QVARTVS MENSIS, 
McuiAccKTH(HCtr() 2pdierum. 

1 WfjdwfcL X 22 

2 Jl&jTigCClWClJLWQV IX *3 

3 £/TKfatytlVou viij i+ 

4 Tuoc<>Tnkcc(Jt.(vov vij *J 

5 TriiiTflAs&fJikv yi 2.6 



GRAEC1S, 41 

6 tuTHkotpiw v Z7 

7 i&dlcpnkctphx iiij 2.S 

8 oj/Jlom's^^ iij 29 
5> wccT.wpiw Prid. 5 o 

10 AwQLT.kxp.ivv Cal.Oaob.'i.Oaob. 

11 TTfO)7He^i efllKajLt€<rS»r; vi % 
11 MutAztIMkoc v 5 
*3 ^iTHim Mux iiij 4 
14 TiT cd^T.izAJlUcc iij 5 
ij zripzfl.izrl Mkoc Prid. tf 
iff tKTiiizrlJliiiK Non.O&ob.* 7 

17 i^Siopnkzr} Mkoc viij 8 

18 o^c/Mh izrt2.incc vij p 
)9 (JvOCTHkzrl JliKCC vi 10 

20 ema? v 11 

ii civ*jTH<p6horpg iiij 12. 

ii ofJlou QdlvovTCC iii 13 

23 4jSioVwCp«9;Vov7@^Prid. 14, 

14 ?k7H<|>6<vgvto; Idus O&ob. 1J 

25 -nipT^m (p5ivcvr>$ xvii jtf 

*5 T^TafTH CpQivow? xvi 17 

18 cAfl/rep.Cpe^oFW xiiij 19 

2p ?vw Ovea xiii 20 
Dicitur & 11 zr^-m m) e!K«c/U 5c zr^7» 
piid «Kflcte,vt fupra. 



4* DE MENS1BVS 




QJINTVS 


MENSIS. 




Tlvwt4'tty}o dicrum eft. 




1 vxijlIwlcc 


Xlj 


Zl 


z Jtibrigot Iwcfxivou 


XI 


21 


3 ^iTykaixivx 


X 


-3 


4 7i\oJ§T*UcC(Jt,iy^ 


ix 


14 


5 ts-IuzfIJscliaIw 


viii 


M 


6 ix/TnkcciJLivx 


vii 


16 


7 e€t/Io^w Uoifxiw 


vi 


*7 


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18 


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iiii 


19 


io 2.ttici'mkctiJLiiv 


"J 


30 


n zrf>®Tnluficf[i'4alAi&ouoZ>s Pridic 


3 1 


u enfl^lpaaJScfltka Cal.Nou* x wouemb. 


13 ]>Ith uM JUkcc - 


iiii 


X 


14 T€T«/p TO OJ^ Aity 


ij j 


3 


15 ZrijJLZTTn U$l2.iK0t 


Prid. 


4 


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Nona: Nouemt 


»• S 


17 iGJlctWCJuftcAlfiOL 


viii 


6 


18 cyjlwujfijlix/ct 


vij 


7 


19 civa7H aJ9i* cft&a 


vi 


8 


20 &<,as,feu ^kosth 


V 


9 


*T JlitiOCTH QGlvOVJQS 


iiii 


10 


21 CMX7H <pd/yOPTD^ 


lii 


XI 


13 oyd[M<poUoiZ$ 


Pridic 


li 


24 itMnnQdlvoviM 


Idus Nouemb^ 


*S 


2? IKTH CpdlVQVTQ? 


xviii 


14 


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• xvij 


*s 



GRAEC1S; 43 

tj TiToJ^TH CpeAflfTC; XVI l£ 

a8 Jh^^S\vcyr>g xv 17 

29 cfl&Tif.cpSiVcm xiiii 18 

30 iVHJOvIa Xiij lp 

Dicitur 8c 21 dies zrfdoTHttl ewaJU, feu 

zrg&TPi fitr ekacftx,vc & in reliquis mefib. 

SEXTVS MENSIS. 

/LtStsvgiCt'u 19 dicrum. 

i wijlIwIcc xii 2,> 

i Afl/T.Is'a^&tf xi 21 

3 JJ/7H keenly* X 2i 

4 i^agmlsocix^M , ir .25 

5 Tsiiirnnlsocixbov viif 2.4 

ff €K7Hf5a^V« vii 2J 

7 IGJlcfJwhcciAivx vi 2,^ 

8 o^Jloafrtf/^* v " 17 
2 c/vorisa/xCv* iiii i? 
10 Jltx/<x,T*kcc/j.{vv iii 29 
11- ?rf^7H^i </l£Ka;xe<mT; Prid. 30 
u Mvr-lzrl <f\iw Cal. iDecemb. 
1 3 ?^"w imJlinK iiii t 
*4* T€raf th esr< c/I&ta iii 3 
1? tje/u&TKW'AiKtt Pridie 4 
itf tKTHu&JlUct NonjeDecemb* S 
17 !6</Uzri «ft6ca viij 6" 
"8 ofjlculv} Mhcc vji 7 
^ cwa7H izrl'JlikK' vi 8 
£? eW*. v 9 



44 D E MENS1BVS 

21 cJ/ya.THQ3ivov%$ iiii * fo 

2i oyc/IcK Cf>9/fOfr2>? iij ii 

23 IScflo^w QOfoovitg Prid, jz, 

24 ?kth ^/Vovt>? IdusDecemb* 13 

2> Zri[JLT3-TH (pBtVOVTOf XIX 74 

26 tcto^t^ (pShorros xviij 35 

27 Ji'th CpflAo^roc xvij ' ]6" 

28 eHfl;T^.$^{rotiW. xvi 17 
2p $wzcdv(ct xv j3 

Dicitur & 21 dies zrg&Tv izr] euutcAi, feu 

zrz&TH ^Tefooi&x , vc & in reliquis men- 
fibus. 

SEPTIMVS MENSIS- 

nco , «Jli^3o dierum eft. 

1 ' VMfjdwlx ■ xiiij j£ 

2 JlBuTigotiwtiJLlvov xiii 20 
^ Izhukaniw >t«i xii ai 

4 7tfoJ$T-Uct{J.ivX XI 21 

tf €k.th Ira^^br j ix , :;_■. 24 

7 l&JtcfjM lsotfilvv viii 2 j 

8 oyMukafxivx vij 2ff 
p. civa1« fa^uiv* vi ,27 

10 JlMoJT.kccfJLiv* v » 28 

11 zr^coTH Izri JUkcc {JLic-otwin^ iiii 29 

12 A&t.Iot cAk# iii 30 

13 ?/tk kr/ (/Iktf- pridic _ 3! 

14 TflxfTHmlZ.iiict C-aManukf. 1 



GRAECIS- 45 

if Tr^zff.lsr/ d\iy& iiii z 

x 6 'iiiiviiwMiiCt ni 3 

1 7 iZJlo/JMiTrlJliKOC Prid. 4 

j8 onflow fcurf c/ll«« Nonaelanuar. ? 

1 9 QivaJrAzr) cilice, viii 6 

20 efoac vii 7 

2 1 J\iKciTH<p£boii&s vi 8 
xi c*Wth (pdi'vovZ? V p 
2^ oy«/IoH Cpe/vovrcr iiii 10 

24 fc€</lo/w <p6/i>ovw iii it 

25 €kTm (p£/mZtf Prid. 12 
25 zrifjLT^H (p6ivcvZc Iduslanuar. 13 

27 T€Tfff7H$.$W0vZtf xix 14 

28 yhn Q6ivcv7ie xviii 15 
2p c/Ifl;7€£$6(pfllVcVT0ff xvii 16 

30 twK$nx xvi 17 
Dicitur& it dies zT^HizrldKaJli^&c* 

vtfupradiftumeft. 

OCTAVVS MENSIS- 
ra/^wAi^p 29 dierum eft. 

1 vv/jlIwIcc xv 18 

2 A^?Va fra/u&a xiiii *& 

3 ^THiVflf/x^sr xrii 2.0 

4 TfloJ$.ka(JL£vv x ii 21 

5 zri/uLzftHkocfjiiw xi 22, 
5" 'ikTHiscc/uiivx x j 2,5 
7 iZJlc/jLukatAwi i* 2,4 
S orJ\whoc{j.ivx yiii 25 



46 DE MENSIBVS 

10 MticJTHkociJ.iv* vi 57 

11 J\&T,a8v</teW iiij 29 

13 y/7woSiA€Ka iij 30 

14 T€T^fT.aJ&ij\ex/a Pridie 31 

15 zri/4.irr*uj$i2.itict Calcnd.Fcbr. 1 
iff %u.Tyizrlcfl{ii& iiii 2 
iy l&hciAH \zr) Jlincc iij 3 
18 o^c/Iok izrl 2.inx Pridic 4 
jc> civccTHtzrl JliKCC Non.Febri 5 

20 GiM? viij 6" 

21 hvajiv <p6iioyZ>? vii 7 
»2i ore/low (pdt'i ovZ$ vi 8 

23 kGJlofxv cpQt'vows v 9 

24 §;ctw CpflwcvZ* iiii , 10 

25 zri/uznu QSivows iii 11 
2ff T«7ap tw <$6fvevY£ Pridic 12 
27 J/th <pfS/w70ff IdusFebr? 13 
2,8 cAfl;T{f.<j)0/voyY? xvi 14 

Dicitur & 21 ^gJth sot dftadU & ZTgdw 
^U€to e*Voccftx,vt fupra. 

NONVS MENSIS. 
KA&tynfiohidiJ 50 dicrum eft, 

1 ux/Jitiofcc xiiii iff 

2 cflflrrlpa Irafclw xiii 17 

3 T>iTHhccjjLivx xij 18 



GRAECIS* 


47 


4 TiTOf 7H Jsra^eV xi 


*9 


5 zriiAzfln hcc[x{vx x 


20 


6 \v\vi hccfJii^ ir 


21 


7 iQJlcfxH i$ccf.dvx viij 


12 


8 oyJlcylsct/JLiw vij 


*} 


p *civ&THWccfJLivx vi 


*4 


io cAeKaTHtVo^uevv* v 


2? 


ii zrgGoTviz?) JliKCc/JLtewZs iiij 


25 


ii 2.6$i(>ocizrl <f[iKcc iij 


*7 


13 5<TH bri jkfcKa Pridie 


28 


14 Te7a/fn/ kri ^.ewa Cal.Mart. i 


Mart* 


ij -zriiAzflu izrl Mkcc vi 


2 


ltf 2kFw £7*"} efl^Ka V 


3 


17 %S(/IofCM Szrl JkeKcc iiij 


4 


j8 ta/lcVwrl cA&ca iii 


s 


i9 cWflJTahD-icfl&a Pridie 


5 


io eka? Non.Mart, 


7 


21 ^KaTw^flAon ? viij 


8 


22* civCCTH QBivOVTQ? Vlj 


9 


23 cyc/Iow <pfl/vov2>c vi 


IO 


24 ifiJldfJUj QdlVOVT)? V 


U 


2? 2k™ qdhcvr? iiij 


1Z 


26 -niuznn Qdlvovnf iij 


n 


17 TfcTapf. CpflftovTBf prid. 


i 4 


2,8 J/th Cp6frcv70f IdusMart.' 


15 


19 Jl6yrigoc<pdhGm xvij 


is 


30 2w£W{«. xvi 


l z 



\% DE MENSIBVS 

Dicitur & 21 dies -uqcoin hsl eiticcJli } feii 

DECIMVS MENSIS. 
Uciwvxify , 29 dierum eft. 

i wixluict xv 18 

2 JlArrizccWcc/jLiw xiiij 1} 

3 Jitu froTxiv* xrj 23 

4 7€TapfM jYk/aIw xij 2.1 

5 zriix-sfln Wctnivts xi 22 

7 l6c/IoftH iSOL/XiVV ' " ix 24 

8 hyMmsotniw - viij 25 
5> c^aTHiYa^UV^ vij z6 
10 J\€KaTHiVa/u^^ vi 27 
it zrf&Twe^r) </IlKa/i€ffS»Z? v ^S 

12 2.6ul€pat©7<AlKa iiij 29 

13 Ip/TH e7rJ </teW iii 30 

14 i^oJ^thIztIMkcc Pridie 3 l 

15 zrifizflv izrl </l£xa Caled. April**. Apri; 

16 ?kTw fc7ri cfllK« iiii 2, 
,7 ific/lojUMizriA^Ka iij * 
18 orJlinwl Mux Prid. 4 
jp avoJinizy] Mkoc Non.April. 5 
io daces viii 6 
21 dvaTK QBhovw vii 

21 0)/c/l<W CP0A5VTOC VI 8 

%\ e€<Ao/^w Cp6xvov2»p v 9 

24 k7tf<p0M)VTQ? iiii IO 



GRAEC1S. 49 

iy v£(J.'&tti<p6ivov'F$ iii it 

i6 TtT&gtH (pSivovrtg Pndie it 

27 Jim (fdAofZg Idus 13 

28 JlBurigx cpi5/vcrrp xix 14? 

29 ?iw©ir€a xviil . 15 
Dicitur & 21 dies zt^th hs\ e?KCcc/li 7 fcu 

VNDEC1MVS MENSIS; 

Goopywhidy^o fdicrum eft. 

i wfxlujloc xvii 15 

2 jLBSiqcck&iJLlw xvi 17 

4 TfcWflw UteULiw xiiii • 19 

5 "&i[JL-&\HkcciA{ft xiii 20 
i> ?jt7K isra/uev* xii 2,1 

7 iQ<flo(Aul?aiJ<.iv£ xi 22 

8 cr</low ira/j^v* x 23 
.9 dvoJTukotiJLivx i% 2,4 

10 JltK&THkGty.ivx viii 25 

1 1 zre(i>7H ojBt c/I^na fJLlcrcxfVTte vij 26 

12 MvT'IztIMkoc vi ' * 27 

13 Jf tw 4m <Mkoc V ^3 

14 T€Taf 7H esr) JJ^a iiii *9 

15 ttlA&THVO') 2£w i n 3° 
i5 gjowcdSc/IlKa .Pridic 3c 

17 I€c/Uot </lescft Cal.Maij I Maij 

18 irJlouhrl Mux vi * 



5 3 DE MENSIBVS 

%o eiK&s iiii 4 

z\ JliKoJwKpBivovZc ijj . 5 

2,2, 4^oirrt <p.$JroF&$ Pridie 6 

z^ oycfloH ^Ajvovtw Nona: 7 

X4 i6(/lojuw (pfl/wni? viii g 

25 ?KTHCp6/vOV7t); vli'* <> 

2,6 TsilXZTTH <P9lV0VV>f Vi 1 lO 

27 wid$h9<p9tvQviPS v 11 

x8 l^rro <3>0{vof2* *"* - 1L 

%9 (AAj7|pa <p8foci&f iij 13 

30 fcVH^a Pridie 14 

Dicitur & 11 dies zt^tw iw ewacA/, feu 
vrgdoTn ^T'etHacfbijVt & in rcliquis mefib, 

DVODECIMVS MENSIS- 
XKt$$Q($0(HCt>yi$ dierumeft. 

1 vx(jlIw(cc IdusMaij 15 
z Z&T.fra/^vfr xvii 16 

3 J/7H hoC/Jiiv^ Xvi 17 

5 m/uCTTtffra/tfVou xiiii - ip 

7 kGJlQfjwkotiJLivv xii l 3Lt 

8 oy^ow fatytfv* xi 22, 

2 civ&TnkcciJL&Ht i*l ^3 

30 2iiK&'nikc£(JLWV viij *4 

I El Z7^7HC^(AlK^^€0'OCCl?2>? Vlt *J 

ii JlAiriga izrl Ana vi afr 



GR AEGIS. 51 

14 TVttlgTH iztlsi7& iiij 28 

if ZrtfAznn kzrl cTeKoc iii 2p 

16 tHTnlzrl Hkcc Pridie 30 

17 kG<flo(j.ui7rlJ\iKOc Calcnd.Iun^ 1 

18 IrJlwizrlJlUoc iiii a 

19 ciyoJrAzrl&iKK iii 5 

20 mcc? Prid, 4 

21 tvvarwcpfljWT? Non.Iul. 1 j 
21 0}/c/!cw -Cp8/vc^TD^ viii & 
23 ^c/lo>w<pe/KO^ vij 7 

25 *3J^zr7H <£ QlvcVTC V iJ 

26 T€TOf 7W (p^ovTO? iiii *o 

27 ?/r« Cpfl/vovTC? iii 11 

28 c/l&Tlffc^foW'rc Pridie 12 

29 'iwQvicc Idnsluniae 15 
Dicitur& 21 dies ZTgdomizrl &kocJIi , 8c 

dc in ceteris deinceps eodem modo • 

lam vides a Iulii die decimotertio ad 25 
dicmvnde annum incoepimus , interefledies 
vndecim, quibus Grsecorum annus noftro mi 
nor eft:fcd ij cum quadrante in o&o annos no 
nagintaannos conficiunt,id eft , tres menfes, 
quosintercalant odauo quoque anno t \t di~ 
ximus. 

D 2 



S i DE MENSIBVS 

Caeterum horum \i menfium interuatlo lu 
nationesfcu.lunae nouae interfuerunt trede- 
cim,quod accidcre nonnunquatradunt Grse- 
ci.Cofidera autem, quam apte incipiat a neo 
menia 3nnus,8t in eandem finiat. 

Qui autem noftrorum menfium dies Grae 
corumfiipputationihocqnnorefpondent,fe-» 
quentianno iidem non refpondebunt 3 pro* 
pter aflcruatos illos vndecim dies reliquos in 
o&auum annum. Itaq;annijJ5oprimus die.s 
anni Grcecorum erit^i^Iunij^qui eft xviij Ca 
lend.lulijjideftjdiesproximefequens pbftre 
mum diem anni fuperioris • finiet autem an- 
nus 2, die Iunijjid eftyiijNon.funias. 

Annus 1551 incipiet 3 die Iunij,& finiet 22, 
Maij. 

Annus itf% incipiet 25 die Maij, & finiet 
decimoitemMaij,quo anno numerantur dies 
duodecim propter biflextum,qui eo anno in- 
tercalate Latinis. 

Annus 1553 incipiet vndecimo die Maii,,& 
finiet vigefimo nono die Aprilis, 

Annus 1554 incipiet vlcimo die Aprilis, 
& finiet 18 Aprilis. 

Annus 1555 incipiet die April, decimono 
no,& finiet feptimo Aprilis. 

Annus 1556" incipiet oftauo die Aprilis,& 
finiet vigefimo/eptimo Martii: qui annus eft 



GRAECIS. 53 

bi/TextilisLatinorum 5 vt& Grsecorum. Atqj 
hie annus intercalaris eft. eft enim ofiauus ab 
eovndeannu incaepimus defcribereij49« 1- 
taqj hoc anno ad fuos duodecim mefes adiu- 
genccres^ujSoA/^a^id eft,interie&itios ,feu 
incercalare$,fingulos $odierum, reliqui enim 
funt o&ies vndecim dies, & totidem quadran 
tes:qui firnul iundi^o dies conficiunt, id eft, 
ter triginta dies-fic ergo defcribenteos. 
o zr% Sip; fdu) <r £^6q A//*S)p 5 o dicrum. 



1 


ptofxlwix 


v Martii 


i3 


1 


(fl&jTigOtlWCtJLWtJ 


iiij 


xS> 


3 


TjiTHl&CfJLiVOV 


111 


3° 


4 


TlTOCgTH hcCLLlVQV 


Pridie 


3* 


5 


zriixT^Asccixird 


. Calend* April # 1 


6 


*{KTH WctlAiVX 


iiii 


z 


7 


k£<flQfJM l&C t ulvX 


111 


3 


8 


oyJlcv kocfxlvx 


Pridie 


4 


9 


civdcTHi&tfJiivx 


Non. April. 


5 


JO 


JliKojT.hafJiivy 


viii 


6 


11 


ZTf>d)TV \zj\ MKCCtXlGQ\wk$ VJ1 


7 


1Z 


2.&ji^xkzrl !kUx 


vi 


8 


*3 


JllHiwJlillCC 


V 


9 


H 


TeToc/f TW \ll\ JliliOC 


iiii 


10. 


15 


ZTc/JLzf[,izn d\iy^ 


"J 


if 


\6 


\ktvi \tu JlUoc 


Pridie 


12, 


*7 


ifijlhjjw izr) aIkx 


.Idus 


'3 


a 


oy2.cn 1-srJ <a!k« 


xix 

D3 


H 



54 DE MENSIBVS 




J 9 civaJTHlZrlJliKOC 


xviij 


ij 


20 duces feu gIkcoSh 


xvii 


ltf 


21 Jltoi&THQ&iiovZs 


XVI 


17 


ii IvvaiH cJ>e*vov2>r 


XV 


18 


2} oycfioH QQlVCVIP? 


xiiii 


19 


24 Ifii/lo^w (J)fl<voyTC^ 


xiii 


20 


25 ?R7« <J>5iyo*To? 


xii 


2r 


25 WrfU'STTflCpfl/wTSC 


xi 


22 


2.7 Teroo^THCpfluo^Tcp 


X 


*3 


28 JiTW^froVT^ 


ix 


*4 


2£ c/lfljT^.CpeiVoVY 3 ^ 


viii 


*S 


30 hiiKtitioc 


vii 


2£ 


Dicitur & 21 zr^dvi 


ItAjEtKoJjli^vt inrc^ 


liquis. 






o e &&jr%Q-> fjilurtfR €/«t6oX/^&p 30 dicru.' 


I WfiluHCC 


vi 




2 Jl&jTtgOC hoCfjitVOV 


V 


*7 


3 'Jrrykoc[j,ivx 


iiii 


28 


4 TtfcJgT'lSCCfAivv 


iii 


29 


5 -&$iJLzfl.koc(JLiyx 


Pridie 


30 


6 iX/THk&ldvX 


CaU 


Maij 1 


7 iGcflofAU kocniw 


vi 


2 


8 ayc/IoH frtf/uivtf 


V 


3 


5> favcc7nfc.Ct(A.lw 


iiii 


4 


10 cft€ WtH kocfJLlVX 


iii 


5 


u -sTfaiTw aJS AfcKa/^coa32tf Prid. 


tf 


XI cAfljT.OJBl c/I^K« 


Non.Maii 7 


J3 ?/THOJ5lJ\eK0C 


via 


8 



GRAECIS. "* jj 

14 TtT<XgT.C&tj\ix/CL vfj 9 

a j zriixzrT.uM2.Ua, vi 10 

\€ iktviIzA Mkoc V !| 

T7 I6.2c/uie&lc/lij<a iiii ii 

18 oy<flon im 2.inoc iii 13 

!9 CtVOCTHiZ?} JIzkcc Prid. 14 

20 eka? Idus Maij j$ 

21 SitKaTH <p6ivo)tZ>$ xvii 16 
it WxJth QBi'voiiy? xvi 17 

23 dr</Iow(p«5iioi'Z? xv 18 

24 i&JlofJW QBibot&s xiiii 19 

25 2ktw (ptitvovpc xiii 2D 

26*- ■Srl/X^TTH ^filkviPf Xli 21 

27 Til&gTH <p3hcV7>f XI 2 2 

28 Jnfl ^iS/voVTDf X 23 
2p- Jl&T^.CpejyoW * x 2 4 

30 wiQvicc viii 2> 
Dicitur & 21 ?r^7H !w ekaJU & ^f^TH 

/U€to eiKoL&x^vt fupra. 

T(>fo${jdw &$ ^jSoA<V^ 30 dicrum eft. 

i WfJilwlx vii a 6 

2 JlOfligocfca/JLtvv vi 27 

3 1?/™ i&cfliivit v 28 

4 7€TOf7w iwcfjiivx iiij 29 

5 zri(JLznHi&iJi.ivx iii 30 

6 ?K7H fotytsV* Prid. jr 

7 tGc/io/xH h&nhv Calcnd.Iun- 1 

8 IrJlwkcctJiiw iiij * 

D 4 



5* DB MENSIBVS 
9 civotT.l&cn(n ii i 

n we&THizrlJlUoctA.iwvrs: Non.Iuri. $ 
li <J\6uT£gcc<JiA?LMkCt viii (j 

13 YmuStJlim vii 7 

14 TtTd(>THuM J\i}& yi 8 
1J p-eV*27TTjaS5i.6K« V 9 

16" ?«7H clS! c/IIkoc iiii i 

17 iGJlotwuMAittx . iii ii 

18 oyJlwufficflixsCC' Prid* j& 
ip cmaTW cdSI</&tfc Idus 13 
^o emccl, feu most xviij 14. 
ti JltKocTH QBlwrof xvij ij 

2 2, dvcCTH CpdtVQVTQg xvi J£ 

23 cycAwCpBtvovZ;? xv 17 

24 i&efloUHQdivovTig xiiij 18 
if ^TH^e/yoi/TOC xiij 19 
£6 zrifxTs-TH CpSlvovTOf xij 2 o 

27 rflafa (pdivovrw xi ^ 

28 JTlTH $i3iW&£ * 21 
*9 JlQjfltyQQlvOVnS ix 23 

30 eVw^vla vifj 24 

Dicitur & 21 dies zrgcoTH u$ dndc<f[i ,feu 

s^fci™ ^r ew*(ft*,vt fupra. 

Videsquam apte buius anniofhui 3 qui 

Graecoru anm vertetis vltimus eft, mefis po- 

ftremus dies vniuerfefupputationicoueniat. 



GRAECIS; y 7 

Oftcnniumenimincoeperam^a ijdielunij, 
& in 2,4 finimus , intercalatis mcnfibus tri- 
bus ,quosvndecim dies & quadrans o&auo 
quoqueanno conficmnt. 

Supereft vtintelligas annum 1545? 3 vnde 
incipimu$,primumefle ilIorumofto,ad quo- 
rum finem fit incercalandum. 

Repctamusuaqueab initio Graecoruman 
nos. Primus annus vnde numerare incceperut 
Graeci annos 3 primus eft primal Olympiadis, 
qui annus foit ab orbe codito,vt vera fuppu- 
tatio doftorum habet, 31 88, id eft,anno fecun 
do regni loathan in Iuda,& tertio anno regni 
Pekanin IfraeI,anno regni AfTynoru 44, a 
Troia capta 407,6c regni Amulij Syluij apnd 
Latinos anno 21. qui abeit ab anno Chrifti 
nato,primo fere medio(qui mundi crat 396^ 
&paulo pluSjideftjOiympi'adis^C'anno 3)aa 
nis 772 :quos fi addas ad annos Chrifti 1549, 
anni Graecorum erunt a primse Olympia- 
dis anno primo^ 21; quos fi diuidas per 0S0, 
vt intelligas quotus annus fit ifte if 4 9, often 
nij embolifmalis, reperies primum efle,8can- 
num 1 J48,eum fuifle ad que tres menfes Grae 
ci addideruntjid eft,embolifmon in eum inci 
difle, qua ratione tres poftremos menfes an- 
no i555intcrtexuim 9 , qui vtillc ,intcrpofitis 
annisfeptemjintercatans eft. 



58 DE MENS. GRAECIS 

Ex hac noftrafupputationc fpero ftudio* 
fos aliquam vtilitatepcrcrpturos adchrono- 
logias Grsecorumintelligendas ) & do&orum 
horninnm interpretationes menfiu GraecorCi 
pcrcipiedas. Na, etiai nter dofios no bene co 
uenit.Na quifquis hbelli auctor fuerit dc me- 
fibus Atticis,Theodoro Gazae adferipti , is a 
Galeno nonhabuie quod difTcntirer,qin fcri 
pfit€oH</l^o/xcSvalatinis effe Septembremia 
Putarcho qui TO><r<JcAfc2)VifcIatiuariu appellaue- 
rit,Sc demum a Plinio qui (AXvv%Luvcc Jfotgyn 
\iy>vocK) orKig^otpOf/Sra conuerteritcx Arifto 
tele AprilemjMaiuirijIunium ream Grsecoru 
menfes vtexnoftra quam non pracul a vera 
putamus abefle defcriptione liquet, vniLati- 
norum menfiin totu nonpofsintaccomoda*. 
ri,fed vnius finem&alterius contcrmini prin 
cipium capiant. Sed de ea re fubtilius iudiciu 
eruditis ferendum relinquimus,fatis eft quod 
initio propofuimus expofuiffe.Plura hisadiu- 
tus,vel certe admonitus diligens literarum ve 
tuftiorum indagatorobferuarefuo fibicom* 
modopoterit. 



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y Google 




G 



kasom 
ctum 



raeeum 



Regiis trium geperum chafaac* 
.. ribus poftrci^") excufum. 







LYT,E TIAE, 
px ofFiuna Rob. Stepiiarii typograplu Rcgii. 
M. ; p. x. 



EX PRIVILEGIO REGIS. 



y Google 



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tttfiRAftVM C H AtC Ally Jf> 

qUaefuntquituof&V>ginti» ;, 
figura Nomca Pronutiatio : 
A a Aa<p* ; Alpha a ' 
BjSC \.B?m Vita :b 
r y r f ,r*^u* Gamma g 
A^^ , AcATBt Delta 3 v ; 
E« BaJ^k Epfilon ctenue* 

2{C 2?7« Zita 2 
H»»&;. Ht* - Ita « defutt* 
@99> . 0»« Thita ; tfi 
It lam . Iota i .-a 

Kit . K**ar7ftt Cappa cj^ 
A A Act^CiW lambda 1 1 

Mft MS .My , nv 
N» N« . Ky n ■ 

Oo« o ^u«yo> O micro io paruil* 
IIPw P? Pi p 

P//> P« Ro r 

ZvQQt lAyuL*. Sigma fi 
T*7 W .Taf t 

A.ii, 

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t *y rtyrif y pfilon . y 

$^?; 4>7 ■: "-"'■■'phi ■-'-;■ ph 
X'x xr Ghi ■ ch 
**+>:■*? Yd pf 

£1 <2 » c; Ci fMyn O mega o mzgnv 

DE PKOli V N TUT 10 Nl 15 

« " fonbliteraruni omnium. 



&& facit a ■" vt*>*%VL _..__. 

B $ facit u • vt $*j&&&i yanraros.] 

Fy facit g vr>«>f<t<p*gcgrapluu 

Ai^fadtd : >r#»»«f (kifis. 

B ^ faeit c " Vr e>«tago. j 

Z£ fecit z V ? vt§>>»zoi. V 
M » faeit i longu vt <?>W phimi. 

© facit th vt 9wwife thanatos.' 

«I i facit i vtiVgs iattos. 

Kx. facit c n > vtaW^colax, 

A a facit 1 vt;\atWlalos. .. 

M ** facit m yt.?uW«* minufis. • 

N 9 facit n a n *«j nx* 

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££ facit x vt#w*xenos. 

O o facit o paruu vt oCeAj'<nc>f ouclifcos* 
n-7rfacitp: vtJWT^p patir. 
P /> facit r vt /»Vft* rhomi. 

2* fecit f vtff/^farx. 
Tt facit): vfm<P*s taphos. 

X^fccity vt fyiw hymnos. 

$ <p facit ph vt <J»ta philos. 
X % facit ch vt wjtk Ghriftos* 
'f'+'factt-pf vt^o^piychos. 
al « fecit omagnum, vt %**»> chiton; 

."^)f DIVISIONS LITE&AKVM'l 

Diuutontur hae quatuor & viginti li- 
ters in vocales &r confonantcs. 
Vocalcsfuntfeptem,* t » i # « «. 
Longx n » 
Breues * * 
Communes * i v 
Pracpofmuat tt tn • a 
Subitrti&iuae * > 
Mutabilcs * # • 
Immutabiitcs ».!.».« . , 

A.iii* 

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Ex His ©oflantur daodecim dfph tho 
gi,quse in duas par res diuiduntuiv 

x af i ef i t ou. 
Propria* fex, */<*> 4 fo ci a^ 

a i o y if of. 
Jmproprias fotfdemv *y*v '*»"' **"* 
tjaarumdux poftfemae Ionum ma- 
gis propria funt, / 

iHl V I S I O C O K-'S O N A N TIV M. 

Confonantes feptemdecim , £ y </£ £ 

..•8 X A ^ V £ 1ST p »t ; 't.<£ ^ •<!*;; 

Semiuocales { £ + * # "* f .«% 

'Duplfces I \ \. 
Immufabiles A p. v f* ■-..■ 
ftttA&xjv «y id eft fui iuris » pcculia? 

rem que quandam poteftatS obtinens. 

Muta? £ y ■> *. 7T t 6 <p #; 

Tenues ^x-'Medfec < y Afpiwtjc^ 

9> eft medium inters & ^. yintci 
it&%* £ intcrr & 0. *; : ; \ 

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DE POTE STATE DIPHTHON- 

gorum propria rum. . . 

AI «j facit x,vtet\via atnco. 

AT** facit af medium inter b&£, 
vt^Awafli. 

EI ( facit i longum> vt#</ chir, 6& 
is,ei'*J»icon. 

EY & facit ef medium inter b&f,vt 
^efge^C^Thikfs. 

OIo< facit i longum,vt oijtt» imi. . 

OT v facit ou,vt cixow oucoun. 
De poteftate impropriarum. 

<t cum iota fubferipto facit a longu, 
vt«f^ado. 

» cum iota fubferipto facit i logum, 
vfrcft/^ti timi. 

^ cu iota fubferipto facit o logum* 
yt wtA»a»Jll<tpalinodia.Veteres vero no 
fubferibebat iota.fed adferibebant fie, 
twi <4»«*i toaeneia,™/"^' ti moufi, 
<T(tijo>,ti<L' tragodia: quod incodicibus 
antiquis licet viderc , tamen mitfori 

A.1M. 



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iota* n tfKtfcris qu&u*adfcribi>ury & 
eiufdem fere magnitudinis cuius eft 
ittud quod nunc fubferibiffur: quse an- 
tiqiia fcribendi cofuetudoadhuc /er- 
uatar in maiufculis Uteris ;■', fie TX2< 
A O T iii to logovT H< M OJT 2 H* if 
moufi. 

- T«. tj cum iota ad/cripto faci t y Ion* 
gu.vt A*Hfflt mya. Habita ratione hums 
diphthogi impropr Ke,quam perpetuc? 
comifaru* iob,vetcresGramatici no- 
rnendederunt u pfilo, quod fignificae 
i nudum gfliberunilitcra iota. 

HTtiv faeit if medium iipfcrb &ti 
conforiantem>vr^a«ftfc ifdaiol 

flYat; fecit of medium? inrerbatu 
confonantem.vt wms oftospro*/^, 

lonicc. ■■-■ i '.."':£•■ ' ; : r -.;... ; V.; ..'■v.-:-/ 
CLV O N A M M ODO D I PS T hqW* 

gi Grace* in linguam fcatinam traf* 
ferantur. o , - 

. Almutatur in acdiphthoiigu,^W 

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AEneas,&/**f<* Hebracus. Interdum di- 
uiditur.vt Aw* Aiax. 

AT mutatur in au, vt *u>xl aula , % 
ozw&s thefaurus. 

- EI mutatur vel in c longu, vt *#«*- 
A<jo* Achillcus, wGf{cL Cacfarea:vel in i 
logum.vt iffa Nilus,€$Wy9» id61um> 
■ifiUiy^du Antiochia. 

EY mutatur in cu diphthongum,vt 
Jtmtl Thefeus,^* cuge. 

OI mutatur in oediphrhongum, vc 
r <&MnZ phoenix, eboQo&v oenophoru. In- 
terdum diuiditur,vt *&* Troia. 

0T mutatur in u logum, vt /"««** 
munca,0/Jfa»t« OEdipus. 

Dediphthongis impropriis. 
,■ -tj 'cum iota vertitar in y longum, vt 
"2>g7ni<L Harpya. 

a cum iota fubfeript© tranfit in ob 
diphthongum.vt » xsf^AoL comoedia, 
» >7?<t,ya>Si<L tfagoedia:vel in o longum* 
vt «^» oda> , »»^3<tf* palinodia. 



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QJT E M A 1>M O D V M HttfX JIC dl'phth Q- 

gi Graecac in Larinu tranffer at u r, 
A mutatur in a, vt xj>fa%i caUthus. 
Iritcrdum in e,vt &'ao*w taletutrc.Ite 
ini, vt x^ia^v caniftrum. Item ia o, 
xtwfotos eorylus, Et in u, vt tSfUftGo* 
triumphus , Et in ae diphthonguni, ve 
AeKXnmcf AEfculapius. 

. B mutatur in b , vt <J>o~6«f Phoebus. 
Item in ph, vt SfU^Coi triumphus. 

• T mutatu r in g, vt AW genus. VertiV 
turetiam in n , vt Zyfetes angelus , $- 
<p%-)f>i diphth6gu$><tW/*t ancora,*^ 
cm Anchifes, <npiy% fphinx.In his autc 
di&ionibus pronuntiatur per ivquiay 
ante r, ite ante *»%>& pronuntiari .de- 
bet per f. Antiqui Graecam Qrthogra- 
phia obferuantes, aggelus » diphthog- 
gus fcribebant.perdupkx gg. * 
A mutatur in d>vt^J»Dido<Intas 
du in b, vt JW bis:& in 1, vt Q^Wst* Vlyf 
fes.Sicut ctiam apud*os d in ImiM- 

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tur.vtafedeofella. • ■ :>■ .-\ 

E pfilon mutator in e brcuc, vt iy» 
Cgb,$>W gcnefis. 

Z interdu no mutatur, vt $Pve**Ze 
phyrus:Interdu vcrd mutatur in gemi 
nu ff^>a<<£«i mafia, *h&'^ patriiTo* 
H mutatur in- e longum,vt xq&* cc- 
ra.fljwfrj) fcena,»9i*a ethice.Interdu in a 
longum,vt fMnttmaXtr&DfJu) fama. 

mutatur in th afpiratum , vt *9y$- 
w Thrace ,5v/<7»ftkyrfus. Internum in 
fuam tenuem,id eft t,vt ^iajt^ triu- 
phus. Item in fuam mediam , id eft d» 
vt§wsDeus,5**dea. 

1 mutatur in i, modd logum, modd 
breuevtfit^ow? Ancrnfes,wsseiiVsNc- 
ftorides. 

- K mutatur in e,;vt K*WCacus. In- 
terdu in fuam media, id eft g, vt xaCm- 
gobius,wW cygnus : quaquam &cy- 
enusdicimus . Itein p,vt A«'v« lupus. 
Amutatqr in 1, vt **»& Pallas, A*- 

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^lyra,At)Jlux. 

M mutaror in m,vt wwi*^* gra- 
maticus.w** ftemma. 

•N vertittfrjn n, vt ivZ- nox* w»$ ita-* 
uis,*<4 naew^ nothus. : 
. 2 vcr citufin x,vt ifrn$<jf» Xcnopho, , 
|e>w»xcnion. 
• O microrhtttatttTin obrcucvteAv/fcj 

w>s Olympus* Item in ; u,vt o$uani4 V-, 
ly#es.Sed £r equens mutatio eft o in u, 
in* fine di&ionis, vt m<oo* Cyprus, *- 
jbu^j Homerus.iW Ilium. Intcrdum^ 
iiicvt 35% genu, fye£«</>o$-Akxandjciy 
vJrftOi caper. 

v'n mutator in p,vt t**.t*/> pater . Ih- 
terdu in fuam afpiratam,qux eft apud : 
nos ph.vt fymp tropharurri. Item iii: 
fuam mediam quae eft apudnos b t vt- 
W£*buxus,^M' Arabs. ■■'* 

P mutatur in r, vrpw'w/* rhetor. Vbi 
fciendum, omncm di&ioncm quat a?, 
pud Gratebs feritattt* pcfif inprinfci* 

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pio(Mionis,apndnos tfanffcrri oQm 
afpirationc,vt^#**rhetoricc. * 

SvertituririfyVt 2k7V^p«.Sifypbus. 
Interdum in x,vt Ai*$ Aiax; Item-irii, 
vt«) tu><* te. 

T mutatur in uvt Te#* Troia, Taf- 
ia*** laralus .;Ini*enftur etiam muta- 
turn in f.figma prjecedete.v* <3s* ofTa. 
? pTIplcruhqucxcmanct, vt iepw?juu$ 
tf icronynaus, ^wWw/^iifyrionymum. 
Tranfit ctiamJn ji , yt ?<ftwtef Rho^ 
jjiulusjW^ bu»us^ fus,^ mus. 
; ^vttritoFiii ph» vtqwnxpoz philo- 
fophiis. Aliquando etiatn in f,vt cpojs© 
fuga^'fwr fama. Item in fuam media, 
Vt *f*4>a>ambo. 

) X mutatur in ch , vt XpW Chry- 
fes, "XfumofM^ Chryfoftomus , Xe«B$ 

£HiI$TVS« 

Spi'ritum afperum Gnecum medo 
in i vertimus, vt t% fex,6<of?<t feprem: 
modo in u, vt IrereVVenctus, ian& 

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vcfpera.Sccl frequenter in noftra afpi 
rationem,vt #/t**»fhymnus. 

fr rautaturin pf,vti$*°4' AEthiops. 
Aliquado in bs, vt "*g*4> Arab*? <&|*»|>- 
7?$ Abfyrtus. 

n mega tranfit in o longu, vt «x<*- 
m Occamis f «#Wtef idolum. 
De. &«. 

T^V.i.nudu & n"mplcx,ita4i&um 
habita rationediphthongi improprise 
q,. qux iota perpetuo comitem haber. 
. De « ■»"-» }». .. ...- 

Vto diciturAwyor collatum a* ,«*>«£- 
A»jita ctiam adiritur 4<^>,id eft tcriue 
& fimplexrcoparatum*, quod eft vc?* 
lut c <JW» ^ «o/'5sot». Coftatenim pro- 
pius intuenti & maiorcs fir minores 
literas Graecas , v compofitum eflc £ 
duobus €6, vt « e duobus ^.-qua in fen- 
tentia funt Gramatici haud vulgares, 
qui conftanter affirmat vcterc* Grae- 
cos pronuntiauiffe » per «:quod ctiam 

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do cent nominailla, TrmZsTTv^a./byu*.- 
Zxii&'Ch'mfA* , qux Latine a vetcribus 
per c reddita funt.Penclopc, Gramma 
tice,ef£tome. 

D E T O N I S, T E M P O R. I- 

bus, fpiritibus, & paffionibus : quae o- 
mnia gencrali *tao<n>heSr, id eft accen- 
tuu appellati one comprchehduntur. 

Tiwi,fcu accent us funt trcs. Acuras ' 
%of&8ps i 'TVT3ofityij. Grauis v ftft* Cir* 
cunflexus ~ ■bw»,j3o*7*. Acutusattollit 
fyllaba cjuam afficit : Grauis deprimit: 
Circunflcxus attollit arque deprimit. 

Xpm^ id eft Tempora duo, logum 
&Breue: quorum prius hacnota-fi- 
gnificarar,& vocali produ&ae fuperpo 
nitur: Pofterius autem itanotatur •' 
vocalem correptam indicans. 

Ut 6!>wm y hoc eft Spiritus funt duo. 
Afpcr, fiue denfus ' eljua. Lenis , fme 
tenuis ' iy». Semper autem vocal is aut 
diphthongus initio dic^ionis alteram 

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poffidetefpiritibqs. 

Sedconfonans f in principle quide 
afpiratur,^** in mcdiovcrd fi gemt- 
netur, priorc loco leuigatur,pofterio- 
rc afpiratur,vn(pfa>. 

P*Xid eft Paifiones funt tres, Apo- 
fhophus * Hyphen v Hypodiaftok , 
. ^7n(?7>o<po^ Id eft Auerfio, in fine dr- 
ftionis ponitur,eftq> notareiecte vo- 
calisalicuiusexhisquatuor* e * «,aiit 
diphthogi *i vel 01 : quod fit ob feque- 
rcm vocalem , quae fi afpiretur, tenuis 
confonans verbi prxcedentis mutatur 
in afpiratam, w*V>« eAe^r.Wr ttey>u 
Profercur enim in more vnicae di<ftio- ' 
nis,^» §>*V <&**$ • w5s <$t&tm ©A&o, 

T<pw,id eft Subunio,nota eft qua di-^ 
&ionesduxconiunguntur,vt exdua- 
bus vna fiat, vt <>*&,?&• otm^juZ. 

YireJWAit, id eft Subdiftin&io , tilt 
opponitur . Coniun&a enim difiun- 
git,vt«,'«-'o',«n. 

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LITERARVM NEXVS, VAUIA" 

<jue'& compendiar/a fcribedi ratio, 
,<gua elegantius fcribentes vtuntur. 



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B.iii. 

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COMPEND I A R I A SCHIBENDI 

ratio, quam ex grammaticoru libris 
vetuftiflimis petitam typis noftris 
expreffimusr 

Sbf A Mutt. - 

Eode modo & in reliquis cafibus , vt 

><*| n' $"*? 

^aut JS" Jfo$»>fo 

^ aut <ty? /l^r/oi' 

• — f/ ; f$X i 

ju^S /uianv ju) /"«M M " . 

^° rt ^*za/W^. iff ^TV * 

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Sciedum etiam, li ten's, ac internum 
di&ionibus lincam paruam fuperpo- 
ni.qusc eas aut materialiterfumi indi- 
cet,vt et,i, '(Qr7,o7ri/>, & huiufmodi apud 
Gramaticos :aut nomina propria efie 
fignificet.vt hfMtdmsjabyqjms, Quod 
a nobis obferuatur ad difcrimen inter 
ea quae & appellatiua & propria nomi- 
na effe pofiunt , cuiufmodi funt a«W» 

h>(. t&Shfa . Interdum etiam linea re- 
da fuperponta.literarum cjuac defunf 
fuppletdefe£hi,vt«fo pro $3*?™$* 

OtWOf pro OVfXXfOi. 



B.iiii. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



NOTAE, COMPENDIARUE, 

cjuibus in Alexandre) Traliano me- 
dico excudendo vfi fumus. 

$c ait?* > VxP* 



1^ jcswAw. ex veteri tame Pauli AE- 
• ginetae codice manifeftum eft,ea no 
ta etiam xa^AiecIe** fignificari. 



y Google, 



D E V E R I S GRAECA- 
,rum literarum apud antiquos for- 
mis & caufis,exIano Lafcare. 

A $ A, primi elemeti forma ex 
A" pentagono figura dignofcitur. 

Earn enim, quod ex quinque A 
talis figure, qualem approbamus, in- 
uicem implicitis conexa fit , hoc mo- 
do, ^ TliV7uX<pa. appellata in reliquiis 
Magicoru librorum , qui fub Herme- 
tis & Pythagoricorum feruntur no- 
mine,inuenire licet. 

TdfjLfA*. vero figuram,A^^t/-ct,,quo 
vetuftiffimi vtebaturin principiis di- 
clionuma vocaliincipientibus , rede 
fignatu indicauerit. Si enim Aiya.(xfxau 
eft ex duabus lateralibus lineis , vt air 
Dionyfius HalicarnalTeus , vni re&x 
coniugatis.hocmodoF, vna vnicon- 
iugata, fMvly^fxfxct conficiet . Verum 
huius element! talemflguram&pro- 

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portionem ex quarto etiam Iamblici 
defe&aPythagorica (vbi de babitu & 
proportionenumerorum docens,qui 
ad aliquid confidcrantur , r«ty^ao«J^ 
voce vtitur)exa&iffime poffumus de- 
prehendere. 

AeAra triangularem apud antiquos 
habuiffe figura , & AEgyptus ipfa pro- 
pter triangularem formam AgAra ap- 
pellata,& pars in AEgypti medio eiuf- 
de nominis , & libelli AgAiw nomina- 
ti.qudd epiftohe etia antiquitus trian- 
gulari figura plicarentur : & tfjcGofov 
acies ad cunci fpeciem ftructa , & me- 
dia pars figure rhombi,& demum A«a 
tv™ fydus, hac AeAra figuram mani- 
feftilfime approbat . Quin &Galenus 
in libello qui m e d i c v s inferibitur, 
figuras quafda fronri academes trian- 
gulares.ait AeAra fimiles. 

DeBre quoque legere eft in Com- 
mentariis quae in Thracem Dionyfiu 

Digitized by VjOOQlC *' 



Diomedi & Porphyrio adfcribunturj 
Quod Hto nunc appellatur.dum Hel- 
lenes fexdecim adhuc Uteris vteren- 
tur,fpiritus locum tenuifle, additum- 
que vel detra&um vocalibus , afpira- 
tioncm aut leuigationem fignifieaffe* 
Ex quo verd inter literas connume- 
iatum,longi E locum obtinct.Eadem 
figura in duas perpendicularitcr par- 
tes difle&a, alterum femifc&um afpi- 
ratum prabuit fpiritum , alteru verd 
tcnuem . Lcgiturpraetereaapud cofde 
Grammaticos,lateraIem lineolam re- 
&x exterius , id eft a parte adiun&am 
dextera hoc modo b , afpiratum ac- 
centum reddere : interius verd •! , rc- 
nuem.Talcs igitur fpiritus inuice con 
iuncTiH literac figura demonftrabut. 
A&fA&Sb, figura ex acuto & graui ac- 
centu , quos difle&um facit , vt iidem, 
dicuntGrammatici , conftare poteft. 
A*f*,$&t, tame forma a futura occipi- 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



2? 



tis, quam MI&M& vocant medici , & 
a monangulo , qui ad ?&!*£&> fpecicm. 
tepCSto/ua. dicitur apud Arithmeticos» 
faciledignofcitur. 

Kat3T7raquoque & S^ftct , quae «»ir- 
7ta$<<$ & ow^,7r<j>o^ cquos antiquitus 
nuncupabat,nonadauthoris idapud 
Suidam referetisfolummodotempo- 
ra , fed (quod mfrum force videbitur) 
adhanc vfquc xtate in Afia equis inu- 
fta,figurafuam liquido patefaciunt. 

Ttw &T alterius figura apud Lucia- 
nu in libello cui Jinn Qurnvrwi eft titu- 
lus, ex ea poena , qua I.7yx<t elementu 
Teu> liters putat effe ftatuedam , quod 
eius locum furripiat,manifcfta eft. 

Tautem neminem later: nanque & 
Hyacinthus f ios ccleberrimus , & vul- 
goferunturverficuli, Littera Pytha- 
gorc difcrimine fe&a bicorni.&c- 

Sed $ quoque forma nos edocuit, 
qui caduceum fcribit baculu efTe me- 

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diocris mcnfurae , anguibu* vtrinque 
fupra eius medium complicatis in civ 
cultmodum, vt baculus fit diameter 
adfimilitudinem $ liter*. 

X autem ex diagonio fiue diallelo 
figura , quam & Xiaw & X appellant 
rhetores,diicernimus:& aftenfeum in 
huncmodumfignatuinuenimus 2£ 
Scribit autem Euftathius X literam 
quatuor pun&is inter lineas adipfam 
coiundionediftindam , afterifci prac- 
bere fignum . Quinetiam ex Timaeo 
Platonis, vbi harmonicam animac co- 
ititutionem quafi producit in longu, 
mox per longitudinem diuidit.lineif- 
que duabus effedis alteram per me- 
dium admouet alteri, atque eiufmodi 
interfedionem X liters fimilem di- 
cit . Hinc etiam huius elementi figu- 
ram dignpfeimus:fiquidem axium in- 
ter fefe,& zodiaci cum aequinodioin- 
terfedioncs, author e Proclo,hoc loco 

Digitized by LiOOQ IC 



allegorice ponit Plato , X lirera for- 
mam prac feferentcs, 

n duplici figura fignauimus , quod 
paflim vtraquc inuenta fu,vt minime 
potuerim antiquiore difcerncre, quu 
pracfertim alteram P, Latinuinde de- 
du&um parua declinatione referre vi- 
deatur.Alterius autcm figura quodlx 
ux dexteta lineae demittir xqualem, 
ex notis illis coftare poflit,qu'ibus etia 
antiquiffimi numeri fignabantur , vt 
in decrctis, & in antiquis monumetis* 
inuentum eft.Quibus etiam notis So- 
lonis leges memoria proditu eft poe- 
nas pecuniarias fignatas habuiffe. In il 
lis enim comperio in antiquis adhuc 
voluminibus in calce operum quado- 
que fignatis, n, A mediu in fe conti- 
nens, hoc modo, [a] quinquagintaii- 
gnificare. Item n,H mediu in fe con- 
tines, hoc modo, [h] quingcnta . Item 
n, X medium in fccontinens , quia- 



que millia, ficfx~|.Han quinqiic figni 
ficat , A decern , H centum , X mille, 
quae V cohtcnta , id eft, quinquies rc- 
petita, prxdi&os reddutnumcros. Sed 
haccfic habenr, non omninopraerer re 
hoc loco interpretata, quandoquidem 
& notxfunt antiquiflimac, & eas^admo 
dum paucis exiftimem effe cognitas . 
n autem tunc forte dicetur apfius A 
& H & X in fe medras continercfi Ise- 
uaelineac parem habueritdextra. Quid, 
quod & ©figuram Iugubris liter* ex 
fabarumftoribus , authore Varrone,vc 
refert Plinius , poffemus aiTcrcre ? 

Et de M & N aiiquid in medium af- 
ferreex fragmentis Florentiide pon-: ; 
deribus & menfuris, necnon & de I«t» ' 
& fi, pernomen in, ex Ouidii verfu 
in 2. Metamor. Littcra pro verbis, qua 
pes in puluere duxit . Et de "J* figura 
ex trifHTili epitheto : immo& P figu- 
ram , & vtriufquc o, quemadmodum 



y Google 



$[ AA<p* ex earu prolatione , quaDio- 
nyfius Halicarnafleus diftingueredo- 
cuit.coniicerepoffitaliquis. 

Et Z»7a figura. a Ze-zu parte aedium: 
non enim ^n tQ £kw,neque ^w tv 54" 
zetam & zeteculam , vt quidam , ety- 
mologise ra,tione minus habita , fed a 
Zjrra literae figura, quemadmodum & 
2,7yf/.& fcdile apud Martialem ab ele- 
meti forma denominatum exiftimo. 

Et Bwtk fane formam mediae literae 
ex partibus quarum fit media , figura- 
re tentarem : veriim ne in <t7reig?>csiAia# 
incidiffe videar , de his , ac de reliquis 
aliis,fi cui curae fuerit, inuem'gandum 
refinquo: praefertim quu de quibus dif « 
feruimus.liquidd fere conftet: vtfit 
exiftimandum reliquas etia,quas cum 
his inuentas & aptiffime cohaeretes ap '" 
probauimus ) veras-efTe elementbru fi- 
guras, quibus antiquitas vteretur. 
Et haecquideattigilfede veterrimis li- 

terarum 

Digitized by VjOOQlC 



tefarum figuris no abstc mihi vifum 
eft, Petrc Medices.quu tibi ante omnia 
rem gratarh fa&urum mc efle^exi- 
ftimauerim , antiquitati fummoperc 
dedito : quod mehercule excellentis 
putoiudicii.quumin omni antiquoru 
conatu , omnfque operc magna fem- 
per aliqua & occulta deprehendatur 
ratio: vnde &hae quoque literarum fi- 
gure talem dimenfionem & refpon- 
fionem inuicem habere videntur , ve 
demonftrare facile quis pofliit , nullas 
alias figuras ta varias inter fe ex tanta 
linearumquantitate , tantampropor- 
tionem conuenietia'mqueferuare po^ 
• tuiffetvt non immeritd fit fides hifto- 
riar prabita , Cadmu feceifum fibi de- 
lcgifle Epigrammeam fontem e re de- 
nominacum, ad earucxcogitationenu 
Ad tarn pulchraenim, tarn iniignem, 
tam denique artificiofam figurarum 
difpofitionem , & loco opportune &c 

C.i. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



tempore opus firir.quandoquidem St 
forma,& vox, & nome earum fyrnbo- 
lumah'quodprac fe fert, Plutaf chi te- 
ftimonio . Quod enim grauiflimus &t 
fapientiffimus author in eo libello 
quem deEi quod eratin Delphis co- 
pofuit , de vna affirmat iitcra , de reli- 
quis etiam conie&ari licet. 

Ha&enusde literis, eanimqueanti- 
quitate&forma,ex Iano Lafcare. 



y Google 



Namcrus Gratcorum# 

IO 20. JO 40 JO 60 70 8d $© 

^ '* V a' y / % l 4,4 

1 et, /ct jca A* fta jf<t |<t od >&<L ^d 

2 $ ij3' K& A^VC '&' £$ oC ttC 1$ 
5 y ty x.y Ay fty vy £y ty' *7ry J,y 

j 1 it xi Ae fii vi |e oe tti 4/ 

6 <? «r k<t a<t ^5- ry V °r V 4r 

7 £ £< << < sc < *c <c. 

8 j»'; i» xj» A»' ^»> wi £»' om iri Iji 

100 203 joo 400 joo 600 700 8oo 500 IO©0 
f * ■■•*•- f <P % 4 * 3> * 



C.iu 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



CHARACTERES R E- 

giifecudo loco icalpti, quibus No- 
uum D. N. I E S V Chrifti tefra- 
mentum minore forma cxcudimus. 



X « Nr * f 

p« o. *4 

© ( 9» IIFvi £ a » 



^ITERARV M NEX V S, VA RIA- 

que& compendiariaicribedi ratio, 
qua elegantius fcribentes vtuntur. 

- A <fy «At» <fey JW $ Jl <% Ai Jtw it Sfa. 
to &? h ty fto> &4 £» 
4 « ?f) At § <* 4 '{h % 'Qt &> U» 

«» & £ x?{ xor w$ ^ nw u x* » u v 



y Google 



u Kf to np *» m 

fqi (jut fAO) pour /*V pat f$* ftm> p* & 

/fy fi /$> /# /** ^ pi p» p* px> poo 
pg> p& /bSjf 

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in top a&L <o& <o&* wj ir» tow m 

Q. mt 0etf % ew vtf <m onti e$ 0t &l n «3* 
<8f «deef £t ofr £L Atu> <dt «9o <&» n ox 

CtC ^ tfD CSR& CCDttf COfWf CBHtf CBJf OUOtt tCM 

am ads art am mm «o* «*f «ai am «i 
«j» am on on «g&> #v ouo atp * set, 

ttitt'D'ni|T7ttf7ac&t; to 7* # itou <? & t! 

71 T H » ? 7f *6* & TO TOI* TO <? I^f 
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& & x» to' & x* x >* x &> zfi $* 

Notx compendiariac quibtts in excu- 
deftdo Nouo tcftamento vfi fumus* 
cum aliis nonnullis. 

Sf Silt it** mmvxt 

5w &*%!■ #e«ic -tmetfr 



A? &# 



C.iii. 

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Laudate 


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gcntcs: laudateeuin. "-, 


omnespopuli. 


Quoniam confirmata efl 


ifiifericordia eius fuper 


nos ; & Veritas Domini '" 


xnaactiu 


t sternum. 



y Google 



CH A R ACT ERE S R E- 
gii pofleriorcs , quibus Nouum D» 
N.I E S VChriftiteftamcntuma- 
iore forma excuchm us,in quo cxcu- 

. dendo trium generum his Regiis 
chara&eribus vfi fumus. . 

A Act I * P pf 

r.r.r. A a ^ ' Tt71 

A'* : JL M /* T v * 

■z£Z zZ x x 

H Urtn- O o '-' -v. .. * «vf> 
0l5> Rr<ar'n t £1 on 

Literarum nexus, varia item & com* 
pcndiola fcribendi ratio. 

, ^ cup <tp at; cw am avm 

dm. 

Digitized by LiOOQ IC 



yx, yt yu yq y& >S $> 
y&p y*t yw rf '\yi s yi pX) 
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Cantitii graduum. 92. 

Ecce nucbenedicite Domino 

i<fbv A titeyim (g) Kve/>ov 

omncs ferui Domini, Qui ftatis 

nmrneW (Pbvtei.K.v&iVy O/ tswng 
in domo Domini: inatriis domus. 
'of eMto Kv&lov , c» cuuAobis omv 
Dei noftri. In nodftbus 

SiOO HjLl/jf, EV TCtjg Vvt)v 

extollite manus veftras in 

i7m&m TafjtfTfcic vf^S &g 

fan&a: & benedicite Dominu. 
tgc cLytcij tyy ^A^mrKfg/ov. 
Benedicat te Dominus ex Sion 
Evj^rogf m_ %v£jLog c4t 2/a>?, 
qui fecit caelum & terram. 



EYXH KTPIAKH, 

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PR E C ATIO DOMINICA 
exfecundum WLatthceum Euangelio. 

Aternojlerqui es in cctlis, fanili* 
P jicetur nome tuu 4 Adueniat regnu 
tuum.Uiat'\>olutas tuajicut in t» 
to &m terra . Panemnoftrum quotidianum 
da nobis hodie. £r dimitte nobis debka 
noflrajicut &• nos dimittimusdebitoribus 
iw/Jra.Et nc nos inducas in tentationem, 
fed libera nos a malo. Amen* 

SALVTATIOAN- 
geli adjanilijpmam \irginem, 
exfecudum Lucam Euangelio. 

' Ngreffus angelus ad M<i- 
I riam,ait>Aue gratia flena, 

Dominus tecum. BenedtRatuin 
mulieribus. llifabetb, £t benedittusfruttus 
yentristui. 



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Cpctt^ VeA^Vra g/sW VpatMOtty ^ ksl%Q/U£- 

Sifys XfTpcuf £oF>^? <C KX^ots, J 7* . /3<t<nAgiW 
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rum patrum: alias infcriptum, Symbolum 
Nicamum & Conjlantinopolitanunii. 

Redo in\mum Deurn , patre omnipo* 
f C tentem^rtatorem m\i 6" terra,"\>iji- 
biliumomniu&inuifibiliu.'Etinynu 
Ttominu lefum Cbrijlutnjilium Dei \nige* 
nitum,ex Patre natumante'omnia ■'.'-... 
fecula,Deum de Deojume de lumine,Deum 
yerum deDeolpero.genitum nonfa- 
Bftyconfubjlantiale patri,per que omnia faHa 
funt.Qm propter noibominesfr propter no* 
ftramjalutemdtfcendit decxlis. Et invar? ."! 
natus ejl de Spiritu fantloex Maria^ir- 
gine,& bomvfaclus ejl.crucijlxus etiam pro 
nobis Jub PontioPilato,paJfui& fe~ 
pultus efl.Etrefurrexittertta dtefecundufcri- 
pturas, & afcendit in ccdos, fedet 
ad dexter a Patm, & iteru\>enturus ejl cum 
gloria, iudicare"\>iuos h mortuos,cuius regni 
noneritjinis.Etin Spiritumfanilum Do- 
WW« &yiuifcdte } aui ex Patre ftlioquepro* 

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iilgi M<wso>$ $b%7aztf. 

O vk ttrwTOJi (tol %oi vn&i vtKtuu ifjso. 

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ceditrfuicumpatre&fliofimulado* 
ratur & eonglorijicaturiqui locutus eft 
fer Propbetas . Et in\nd fanftam catholica 
& apoftolka Eccleftam.Confteor'^mbapti- 
(main remiffionem pcccatoru.Etexpe'tlorefur 
rettione mortuoru,&yitdyeturifeculi.Ame.' 

D'ECEM PRAECEPTA DEI , 

yer Mofem data. 

Exol X X. 

Et locutus eft Dominus omnes fermones 
hos,dicens,Ego fum DominusDeus tuus,qui 
eduxi tede terra AEgwtiJe dvmoferuitutis* 

Non erunttibi dii alieni pater me. 

Non fades tibi idolum,neaue yllius 
fimulacbru,qua;cuji in ccelojurfu,&quacuq} 
in terra deorju, & qucetuqs in aquisfub terra. 
Non adorabis ea,neque ferities e- 
is. Ego enimfum Dominus Deus tuusjpeus %e 
lotes,reddens peccata patrum injiliosr, in 
tenia et quartagenerationiodio babetibus mel 
et fades mifericordia in milia dtligetihus me,et 

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femantibusfrceceftamea. 

N<?» accipes nomen Domini Dei tut in 
\anum: non enim mundabit Dominus accu 
vientem nomen eius internum.} * 

Memento diem Sabbatorumfanfti* 
fcare turn. 

Sexdieb 9 oj>eraberis 9 et fades omliia of era tua: 
at die feftima y SMata Domino 
Deo tuo. Non fades in ea omne of us tu, & 
flius tuus,&jiliatua,feruus tuus,&Jerua 
tua y bos tuusfix fubiugale tuumfr omne 
iumentum tuumfr aduena babitans in tel 
Infex enim diebusfedt Dominus caelum & 
terram, &mare 9 & omnia auce in eis y 
6r reauieuitdie feftima.Vroper 
hoc benedtxit Dominus diemfefti- 
mam fcr fanftijicauit eam 9 

Honor a pattern tuum & matrem tuam 9 ~\>t 
bene tibi Jtt,&yt longauus fts fujter 
terrabonam,qud Dominus Deustuus dat tibu 

Nonoccides. 

Nonmoecbaberis. 

DM^ m 



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■rfo) TrauiSicmluj drtf&Ti IV (Zoos 9 <wy ,»' 7* IV 
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nPOSETXH MANASSH 

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Non furaberisl 

Nonfalp> teftijicaberis cotm fyoxitnutuu 
tejtimoniumfalfum. 

r Non concupifces ~\>xorem yroximi 
tui,non concuftfces domum froximi tm} 
neque agrum eius,nequeferuum eiusjiequc 
ancillam eius, neque bourn eius,neque 
fubiugale eius , neque omnemfupeltettile eius} 
neque qucecunquefroximitui Cunt. 

ORATIO M AN A S S $ 
Regis Juda. 
Omine omnifotens Deus fta- 
D tru noftrorii,Abrabam,& ifaacstla 
cob y tr feminisedrumiufti, . 
quifecifli ccelum & tenant cumomni ■ 
ornatueowm 9 quiligajii mare •- ' ' 

Ipcrho^Yaccpitui^uicom 
hjjfum^fignaftieamterribill^ lauda- * 
hilt nomine tuoiquem ofnniapauet 7 &r tremptjk 
IpultuVirtutis tua : quia imyortabilis eft ma* 
gnifichiaglorice tw,& infuftentahilis ira 

D.w. 



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cominatiois tua foyer feccatores:immcfaycro 
ctiinueftigabilis miferic. fromijftois tuce. T« 
enim es Dotnin altijjim\benignus 9 lQganimis 9 
tt multumifericors, & yoenitesfufer malitias 
hotm.TuDominefecudumultitudinebonitatis 
tuce jtromiftftifoenitentia et remijfione iis qui 
feccauerut tibi, etmultitudinemiftrationu tua 
ru decreuifti yoenitetia yeccatom infalutem. 
Tu igiturDomieDeus iuftoru.no yojuifti per- 
nitentia iuftis, Abraham.et ifaac.et Iacob,iis 
qui noyeccaueruttibi : ftdpfoiftiycenitetiam 
proper me yeccatorhquonia feccaui fuyer m* 
mem arena maris. multiflicatce ftunt iniquita- 
tes mece Domie, multifile at a Junt iniquitates 
m^etnofumdignus ituexi & afyicere altitu 
dine cali,j>rczmultitudieiniquitatu meamuur 
uafjumulto^iculoferreoyt nofojfim attoU 
lere caput meu,et no eft mihi refviratio,quia ex 
citaui iracundiam tuamfr malum coram te 
fecunonfeciyoluntatem tuamfanon cufto- 
diui mandata tuaflatuiabominationes, 
tr multijtlicayi offenfwnes. Et nuncjleftoge^ 

D.iiii. 

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-jmam 



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il'AH 2 AX API OY, 

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m cordis mei,frecans a tebonitatem. 
Veccaui Domine, yectauifr iniquitates meas 
ego agn6fto.Quareipeto,rogans te, remitte 
tnihi Domine, remitte mibi:& neftmul ferdas 
me cu iniquitatibus meis,neque in ceternu iraf, 
referuesmala mihi,neque damnes me in 
intima ten aloca: quia tu esDeusJDeus 
{rnqutyceniittium: & in meoftedes omneni 
bonitatem tuam,quia indignu faluabis me 
ftcudu magna mifericordia tua,&laudabo te 
femyer omnibus diebus^itce mece , quoniam te 
laudat omnis\irtus calorum, et tibi eft gloria 
infecula. Amen. 

C ANTIC VM Z ACHARIAE. 

4 

EnediZlus&ominusDeuslfrael, 

B quia\ifttauit & fecit redemytionem 

flebisjiue-.lit ercxit cornufalu- 

tis nobisjn domo Dauid fuerijui: , 

Sicut locutus eftfer osfanftorum qui 

afeculofunt^ Fro^hetaju ew,Sakte ex wi-l 

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tnicis noftris,& demanu omnium qui ode- 
rut nos : Adfaciendd miftricprdia cu fatribus 
noftrisfe memorari tejlametifuijantli , lup 
iuranduquod iurauit ad Abrabdfatrenojlm, 
datum Je nobis, Vtftne timore,de manu inimi 
com nojlrorii liberati,feruiamus illi In fanfti- 
tate & iujlitia coram ij)jo,omnibus diebus 
*\>itce noftrve.Ht tu per,froj>heta altijjimi 
^pocaberis: yrceibis enim ante faciem Do- 
mini yarare Mas eius, Ad dandafctentiamfa* 
lutis ylebieius, in rpmijfione feccatorum eoru 
Yeryifceramijericor dice Dei noftri, in quibus 
yifttauit nos Oriens ex alto.llluminare bis 
qui in, tenebris & ^mbra mortis f edit, ad di* 
rigendos vedes nojlros in^iani pacis. 

' CANTICVM SANCTISSI-; 

tnceyirginis Marice. 

Agmjlcat animameaDominum: Ef 
M exultauit fortius meus in Deo 

faluiari meo, Quia refyexit ad hu\ 

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(Zov/ofyioi$ cwiiv . iimym Xf asms d* $&%<ovl 
$&CLfA (& cbGuApju&<ri curt? Sif 78* GUttoVct. 

■OrAH STMEilNO 2; 



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militatetn ancillcejitcetecce enim ex 
hocbeata me dicet omnesgenerationes. Qjfia 
fecit mihi magna qui fotens eftt&rjanFtu no- 
mi eius.Et mijericordia eius a yrogenie injwo* 
genie timetibus eu . Yecit yotetiam in brachio 
Juo:difyerJitfuj>erbos mente cor- 
dis fui.Dej>ojuit fotentesdejede y & 
exaltauit bumiles.Efurientes impleuit bonis] 
& diuites dimiftt inanes.Sufcept 
ifrael fueru fuu y recordatus mifericordice fuce: 
Sicut locutus eft ad patres noftros,A* 
braham &jemini eius infecula. 

CANTICVM SYMEONIS. 

Ync dimittisferuum tuumDomine] 
N fecundum^erbum tuum in yaceiQuia 
Ipiderut oculimeifalutare tuu : Quod 
far afti ante faciem omnium fopulorum, 
Lume adreuelationegentiu , & gloria flebis 
tualfrael. 






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EYAOTIA TH2 TPAPE- 

X nnmrr SbvAat <«, oTta.yu>$ it ctVto7E, 
ttwxjilljb llflvteupoKtt T cyan*. AfJUft. 

ETXAPI2TIA META TO 

E ex* ^ <tW *7rhvuoicM SbpeWy lycutff 
ETAOTIA TH2 TPA- 

^sy>u (i'yiAcdvTtif dp opojuu7tV m&f 
XSH TVtjoo % M auytw m&jf&ns* AfjUou. 
E Y X A P I 2 T I A T H 2 

E Tntotw t dSg/>}4 aim <nv % o$ {tit kj facta- 



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BEN EDICT! O MEN- 
fie ante deguflationem. 
Urijle Deus , benedic cibum & votum 
C firuoru tuoru, quoniafanllus e$ iugiter, 
nuc &-femfer,et infecula feculoru.Ame. 
CRATIARVM ACTIO POST 
deguflationem. 

EnediftusDeus,qjuimifereris 6* alisnos 
B ex largis donis tuis , idaue ex 

gratia £r benignitate tua iugiter, nunc 
&fimfer y & infecula feculorum. Amen. 
BENEDICTIO MEN- 
fie> aliter. 

inedicite. Deus . Omneauod a^oft* 
B turn efi , £r ajyonetur , per Dei 
\erbum fanftijicetur , in nomine yatris 
&fi\ii Zrfancli fortius. Amen. 
CRATIARVM ACTIO 
menfie. v 

Ratias agimus tibi omnifotens D«tf ,pro 
G omnibus benejiciis tuis, qui yiuis 6* re- 
gnas infeculafecubrum. Amen. 



y Google 



np AS. A. 

ALicajOTtt,, ov 6 Siog 6 wnow; tdv 
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i$ imXTtt^ z» djuioig, o <Ptct gdfJLctTdg 
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TdVcty 7ra/pigftazaf o\ fidLotAetg £ ytg y 

?> dJUTQY^} TOO K.VCAOV KS^ Ky ScT 

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r Uog FiAgLTog , riw iQviat %& ?&ole 
I<r£$MA,7n>M0ttf oazt v%&tf Qv \yj[ n 

%n vtw Kxjcm t7nJt $n w <Lmt- 

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vetv at &g \cunv,nguj anfrndb (& h&ltcl 
yviSaffict, too ovifjLotTog Scf ciyiov 
7nq<f6g ow IfiQS. Kce) Ati&lvwv euu- 
t Hn&X&jdn o 707io? at to ncntv aiiv- 

TrvAjfAaiog dytov t fyy iAsn^gwu 
teypv too SioafX^ 7ntpfin<ncLg, 



EXCVDEBAT ROBER- 
T VS STEPHA NVS 
JYPOGRAPHVS 
/&IBU TtfR E G I V S, AN. 

•'■ vrr,i - ,j)- B i M. D. L. 

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Alpnabctum 
Graccum. 



Addita funtTheodori Bcix Scholia, 
in quibus de germanaGraxae lin- 
guae pronuntiatione difTeritur. 




*rjnr>hi? joitudL; 



Oliua Roberti Stephani, 
M. D. LIIII. 



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TBBODORVS BEZA ROBERTO 
S T E P H A N O S. D. 

q^v v m nupcr vna effemus,& fermo forte incidiflet 
de Crxci fermonis pronuntiatk>ne,magnopere a me co- 
tendifti vt fentetiam de hac tota re mca paucis perfcri- 
ptam verbis ad te mitterem. Ego ver6 parui libens,non 
modb vt tibi gratu facerem,{ed etiavt do£tot& eruditos 
illosyk quibus tenuia ifta contemni video, ad banc parte 
Gramatices excolendam hac qualicuque mea fcriptione 
incitarc. Etfi enim prima hare funt pueritia? rudimenta, 
exiftimo tame de his propf ie dici pofle quod Fabius de 
hac tota difciplina no veretur affirmare,muko plus earn 
in reccfTu habere, quam in fronte promittat. Ni ff veru 
eft,multu intereffe non modo quid dicatur, fed ctia quo 
modo dicatur, nemo ifta merito contepferit,fine quoru 
tognitione neque cum voiuptaje audiri quae loqaimur, 
neque qua; fcribimus legi poffint: quia fine his numero 
Camilla collocatione, id eft vera orationis ornantctanon 
poffis adhibere.Itaque^vt ego quide arbitror,nihil aqpc 
hodie (pern eorii fruftratur f qui fe ad Poetar aut Oratoris 
alicuius veteris imitation^ contulerut,atque virtutis li- 
jteraru & accentuu ignoratio, qua: quidem in verborum 
collocatione & orationis ftruSura dominantur.Deindc 
vero quam periculofe facpe peruerfa pronutiatiore&am 
fcriptione deprauarit,cruditiffimiTheologiac Medici 
quotidie declarat. Ego igitur quid de hac re fcntirc*,pau 
cis cxplicandu putaui:minime idquidetn vt legem? iBis 
pra?fcriberem,quod mihi nunqua in mentem venifc fed 
vt eos excitarem,ex quoru potius iudicio & authoritate 
toti hanc controueriia decidi par eft. Me verb nulla hie 
nouitatis gratia captare,vel ii teftari poflut qui hie quo- 
tidie audiut cotra meq iudiciu noii aliter pronuntianite, 
quam in fcholis olim didicimus.Hic enim fan^ vaieat A- 
cademicoru *Y*TOAif>fkx,tatifper dii feshtfe tota doclio- 
ru fententiis coponajur. Vale. Laufennac,CaLOc}ok. 

u. v. 1,11 ii. A.ii. 



Digiti 



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LITERAE APVD 

VICINTIQJATVOR, 

Figura Appellatio Pronutiatio^: 

na, vt not quide arbitramnr 

A et - AA<p* Alpha A a 

Bj36 B»7a Beta,^s»vitaB b 

Tyrf Ia^u* Gamma Gg^S 

A*«/fc. Agm Delta Dd 

E g E4<Ao» E piilo j-ten^E e tea*- 

2CC Z«7« Zeta,L* DS 

Hk» Hto Eta,^>ig*ita. E clogu 

en ©JJm Theta/^Th 

I I ' lam Iota I 1 vocale 

K k Kcwywa Cappa Cc tlefon , 

A A A<LfA&Sbt, Lambda L 1 

M^ Mo My M m 

N v NJ Ny N n 

S I S? Xi Cs,~»Gs 

O o o O ^^>o» O micrOpl^O o »>«« 

nPtjr-Trn? Pi Pp 

P./f P« Rho Rr 



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GRAECOS SVNT 

Qjf ARVM HAEC EST 

Prontitiatio vulgata, Etymologic 

quamcorruptamcxiftimamusr - ex Hcbr*o (crmonr, 

Aleph 

JV cQnfohans,id eft DiganulAEolicum, v Beth ' 

vel t/,vcl cj.Eadem vt n/c$uete x,vcl^,vcl ^ UKnCl 
>,vcl,i i:.'! ;/ Dalctfif 

Is longu,fi acutu* acc&us fucri^^ipofiitua. 

Z, id eft infira&o fenb $. ' Tlaul 

I longum^i accetum acutum habuerifcbre- He th 

uc,figrauem. T L 

T apudindo&os. 1 Cth 

Iod 

Cprxcedcnte y. Caph 

Lamed 

Mem 

Nun 

O longum,fi accentum acutum habueric. . 
B,fi praccflerit p. Pc 

Res 
Aaii. 



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zed by G00gk 



Figura Appellatio Pronutiatio f£- 

na.vt not quidt arbitramur. 

2,<rQQ$'Z'iyjua. Sigma S(s 
Tt 1 T«£ Taiv^TatT t 

rvi, r<\itiv Ypfil6...ten«cVu;^ai 

Galli pronuntiam,Germam n Galllcom vocant. 

$ <p <p *? Phi F fi« ph 

f-t^ >T Pft Pf,vaB S 

CI a a Clfjufytt. O mega. O logu. 

id eft magnum. 



Digit! 



zed by GoOgk 



Pronutiatio vulgata, Etymologia 

P*qaam corruptam c&i&mamas. ex, Hcbnto lennanr* 

. S infra&o (bno,quu inter diusconfonan- SaiXlCth 

tes intcrucnit. 
D,prsccdcntc r» Tail* 

Fhc,id 

cftPcfincdaghfe 



Obreue,quando fignatur gruii. 



A.iiii. 



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zed by G00gk 



Diuifio literarum. . 
'■ Ex his x x i ii i Uteris, Vocales funt 
£eptem,id eft quseperfeponuntpfe- 
nam vocem edere, <t e «.* o v. a. 

Longar, no 

Breues totidem, eo 

-Ancipites tres, <* i u, idcR in qui- 
bufdam vocabulis longae,in quibufHa 
breues,in paucis indiffefentes. 

Reliquae literae vocem non edunt, 
ideoque a Platone in Cratylo & The- 
reto generali vocabulo icpaju voca- 
tur,id eft vocis expertestaGrammati- 
cis ver6 ov/ut,q>a>nL,id eft Confqnantcs, 
quod cum vocalibus adiun&is fonos 
iuos communicent. Sunt autem nu- 
mero xviii )8y^0* A j»|i 
$ ir f <r r Of y ^f'• 

Exquibusfunt 

v/A<patA y id eft Semiuocales o&o,fic 
di&x, quod, vt nullas habeant voca- 
les adiunctas, quandam tamen ftre- 



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zed by G00gk 



pitiis &fbhi fpeciem edant, £'?.+ •* 

(I.-9 f.r. ■ 

Ex his funt 
A<57X<t,id eft.Dupliees tres,quod dua 
rum literarum fmt compedia,£ | 4« 
- Y>£*,id eft Liquids quatuor* quod 
-ita fint lubricae, vt quafiliquefcantin 
-pronuntiando, A /a, p p. Ea?dem 
ctiam ot^ra'Co^gi dicuntur, id eft Im- 
mujtabiles, qubd in formationibus ca 
fuumvel temporumnon mutentur, 

MoiclSi Kovyid eft folitarium,vnu <r. 

Cazterae nouem appellantur AQatct., 

id eft Mut2E,qu6d per fe neque voce, 

vt Voca1es:rieque ftrepitiim edant,vt 

JScmiuocaIes,@ y ^ *-t?'T <£ ^. 

■ Exhisautem 

*I"W,id eft Tenuestres.funt,exili fci 
licet & ten.ui fono contcnta*,-^ x. v. 

Actus a , id eft Denjfaj totidem a fu- 
pcrioribus procreataejadiunc"ta afpira- 
tione:quo fit vt tenuibus,no afperio-. 



Digiti 



zed by G00gk 



res quidem,vt vulgo putant,fcd den- 
fiores finf,& quaii pinguiores, <J> % 8. 

MgW, id eft Media: cuiufdam inter 
tenues & afpiratas natura:,£ y J\ 

Opponutur autem inter fc, & ali* 
in alias £epe trafeunt, ideoque etrnw- 
£t,ideftlitcra: inter fc oppofita? vo- 
cantur: cuius oppofitionis hacc eft de- 
fcriptio. 
Tenues Media? Afpirata 
tr |S <p 

x. y X 

r ^ « . • 

DE- -SYLLABI S. 

Ex his Uteris conftituuntur fyllabx. 
Syllabam aute vocamus, docendi cati 
fa , fpiritus cornprehenfionem ad vna 
voccm exprimenda. Eft autem in tri- 
plici differentia. Conftat enim vcl ex 
vna vocali,vel ex duabus vocalibus in 
mixtam vnamvocem coeutibus, vel 



Digiti 



zed by G00gk 



ex cofonantc vna vel pluribus cum v- 
na vocali,aut duabus ad fummum. 

Primi generis fyllabae quinque funt, 
quot fcilicet vocalium foni. Nam n 
ii a non voce,fedvocisquacitate dif- 
feruntab 6 & o. 

Secundi generis, Diphthongi,id eft 
geminifona: appellator, quodex dua- 
bus vocibus tertiam vnam efficienci- 
bus componantur . Ex vero proprie 
numerantur tantum fcx, quibus toti- 
dem aliac adiiciutur im proprie He vo- 
catae,quia vel vt fimplices vocales e£- 
feruntur,vel compofitam quidem vo 
cem edunt , fed rardius tamen coale- 
fcente:vt pene videri pofTintdua: pri- 
mi generis iyllabae,ficut ex hoc diagra 
mate apparet. Hacc eft igitur fyllabaru 
•Diphthongorum 

Propriarum 
Figura Pronutiatio £: Vfitata & t% 



ra 
uau 
na.vt exiftim«mB$,vno /pi- proanntuti* 

rim & tenore. 

2\ « vel x 

Digitized byCjOOQlC 



it . 


au 
ei 


af,^vcl au per u 

confonans. 
i vocale* 




eu > 


cf,vel eu per u 

confonans. 
i vocale. 


9V 


ou 




Impropriarum 
a. vel A. ai a 




ij vel Ht 


eivele 


i vocale. 


a vel £2* 


oi o 






eu 
ou 

^ 

Ul 


if, vel iu per u 
cpnibnans 

of,velou per u 
confonans. 

i vocale 



Tcrtii generis fyllabz ex confbnan- 
*ium& vocalium multiplici conne- 
xione pene {untinnnitx,quas enumc 
rare* minimi necefle eft. QuafHam ta- 
me regulas fir defcriptiones comme- 
tifumus, quibus pueri adquarundam 
conftitutione intelligenda adiuuetur, 
Primaregula. 

Omnis fimplex cofbnans inter duas 
vocalespofita invnadi&ione veldi- 



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zed by G00gk 



uerfis,per apoftrophon tamcn coniu- 
&is, ad fequentem vocalem pertinet. 
vt,TO|T)!jp,non w*t[^. Item *s\%\/ul( a* 
non>cst9>[«|/w</i<w. 

Si occurrerint duae iun£he confbna 
tcs,quando ad vna fyllabam, quando 
ad diuerfas pcrtineant , ex his regulis 
& defcriptionibus cognofces. .. 
Secunda. 

Hae tantum Semiuocalesin vnafyl 
labam confpirant,iu.r, */*, praeterea A*, 
w, /*, fed in extremis tantum didio- 
nibus,iifque perpaucis. 
Tertia. 

Ex Mutis hx tantum coiugationes 
reperiuntur. 
Tl? $? 

Quarta. 
Ex Semiuocalibus & Mutis ha: tan- 
tum in vnam fyllabam coalefcunt: 
A omnibus Mutis fubie&u,practer J": 



Digiti 



zed by G00gk 



T£. fA Item £-ft, fed in mediistan- 
A_> QJ tumdictionibus* 

ir 




/ K 



Item <J», fed nunquam initio 
di&ionis. 



r 

A 
X 

P omnibus Mutis fubiicitur. 

2 praterquam quod includitur tribus 
illis Uteris duplicibus, etiam pra?po 
nitur omnibus Mutis prater y, & 
folum coit cum duabus confbnan- 
tibus,ncmpe q> vt q>o \$l. 

DE ACCENTIBVS. 

Profodiac, id eft Acccntus,pronun- 
tiationimiriricecoducunt. Suntau- 
tern apud Grxcos numero feptem, 
exquibus 

toni tresfunt,nempcAcutus, 



Digiti 



zed by G00gk 



Grauis,Circunflexus: quibus vocis al 
*itudinem,(iue,vt Graeci vocantj-rowr, 
id eft intetionem metimur. Sed inte- 
tionis nomincGramatici ctiam quod 
illi oppofitum eft, id eft acquabilitate 
& rctriiffionem vocis , ipfamque adeo 
circundu&ionem comprehendunt. 
Exhisigitur 
Acutus acuendam & attollcndam 
vocem (ignincat, vocali impofitus,fi- 
gura cadentis teclac liheoke, led ita vt 
in finiftrum latus vergat ' vt%k- 

Grauis depreflionem aut aequabili- 
tate vocis declarat, eadem linea in co 
trarium latus propendente * vt %(** . 

Circunflexus monet flectendam & 
circunducenda vocemtquod fit fi fen- 
fim attollas,deinde deprirtus. Itaque 
figuram habet ex Acuto & Graui con-' 
iunc}isc6flatam,hocmodo A , velex 
inucrfoyplilo n, quae notapofteain 
tftam degeneiauit ~ vt W». r 



Digiti 



zed by G00gk 



temp o r A funt duo, quae vocar 

«lis pronutiandas longitudincm decla- 

rant.velbreuitatem.Ex iisjongu pop- 

re&a longa linea ~^,breue quafi ypfiK 

nota u pingitur. 

s p i R i t v s duo, tic appellati quod 
fignificent,qua: Vocalcs in quibus di- 
clionibus natitrali fuo fpiritu , id eft 
tenui fint contetae : item qua* denfio- 
rem fpiritum extrinfecus afTumant* 
Exhisigitur 

Denfus inmaiufculis literis pingi- 
tur H dimidio', vt AV?o/<#:in minori- 
b 9 ,dimidio circulo ', vtcL^ofJtsH.fvm^ 

Tenuis fignaturalterodimidio H, 
vt A^TB$:velhemicyclo ', vtcums. 
Loci accentuum. 

Nulli olimaccentus%nabatuf,fi- 
cut ex vetuftis codicibusapparet.Nuc 
autem Acutus fignatur vel in antepe^ 
nultima,vtja5ew?: vel penultimajvt *'* 
jm va>: vel vltima,vt 9*oV;vnde fa&umvt 



Digiti 



zed by G00gk 



di&iones vocentur a Gramaticis pro- 
paroxytonae, paroxytonae, vcl oxyto- 
nae, id eft antepenacuta: , penacutae, 
velacutae. 

. Graueimponiquidem oportuito- 
jnnibus fyllabis quae neque acuuntur, 
neque circunfle&untur :(ed ne tanta 
accentuum multitude le&ionem im- 
pediret, vfus obtinuit vt in fola vlti- 
ma fignetur,idque in iis tantii di&io- 
nibus quae , quum natura fint oxyto- 
nae,incontextuorationis ponuntur, 
vt » "z^en ov %ot iifmt. Ab hot accen- 
tu di&io dicitur 0«ft«/o/t4w,id eft ad 
yerbum,grauata. 

Circunflexus inferibitur vel pcnul- 
timae vtCoot7»,velvltimae vt £<>a,a quo 
di&iones vocantur properifpomenae, 
vel perifpomenae , id eft pcnultima, 
velvltima circunflexae. 
. Temporumnullus eftvfusine&o, 

repertis n & «. Inancipitibusautem 

B.i. 



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zed by G00gk 



« t v, negliguntur maximo cum in- 
commode, inuectisin eorum locum 
tonis, ficutin Scholiiscopiofe often- 
dimus. 

Spiritus impohutur Vbcalibus om- 
nibus,fed initio tantum diclionis. In 
conibnatibus autem nullus eft illoru 
vfus:.omnes enimfuo fpiritu natura- 
li contents funt. Excipiuntur tantu 
quatuor,*7r k t & p,qu2e denfioreali- 
quando Spiritu efferuntur. Sed ex il- 
lis tres primae fuos habent peculiares 
charadteres. Ipfum autem /> quum di- 
#ionem inchoat,delb fpiritu temper 
fignatur,vtp«t'sf?<a: in medio vero non 
item,vt^J/t<5V^*>tT»j>. Si tamen gc 
minetur ,priori fpiritus tenuis,pofte- 
riori denfus inferibi folet , vt afttw. 
Di&io lgiturdenfo fpiritu notata,di- 
citur a Gratis S&nwofiQp* , id eft den- 
fata^cui opponitur^Aov/t^owjid eft te- 
miata. , • ..■ 

.i.-'I 



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zed by G00gk 



DE CAETERIS NO-TIJ O^yAE 

partim infcribi , partim fubfcribi,, 
partim adfcribifolcrit.. 

Pinguntur &aliae note, quaru ma- 
ximus eft vfus & neceflaria cpgnitio, 
quaiuiis inter Profodiasnon debeant 
numerari. Exiis 

INJCRIBVNTVR duae, Apoftro- 
phus & Dialyfis. 

Apoftrophus,id eft auerfio,Vocaiiii 
elifionem oftendit:&infcribitur adla 
tus literas eadem forma,qua tenuis fpi 
ritus : idqueplerunqueirvfine, vt <jt? 
i/u>S t pro <cP^.IimZ. interdum in initio 
vt « ><*9ipro a Jpt'ti'Mm medioyni* 
di&ionis ex duabus copofita?, vt %lfr 
y> »,pro o 'ifyfv.KAyu^xo w fc^.HabeS 
autem hanc vim vt praccedentem co- 
fbnantem cuiadharret,fi tenuis fit, # 
proxime confeq.uajrur fpiritus defus, 
mutet in aipiratam ,*m?w», ytx*% 

" B.ii, 



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zed by G00gk 



ijAftujpro Ksvm U/uepat. Idque ctiam in 
duabus confbriafitibus coniun&is ac- 

cidit,Vt Wi^Q' oA2a/,pfO VvK7at oMto. 

Dialyfis, id eft Diflblutio, duabus 
vocalibus diftin&e pronuntiandis im 
pbnitur,duplici pun&ofignata, vt«w- 
fios, ieUKaCosyicietmfy tetrafyllaba:/j»<ret<; 
trifyllabum. 

s v b $ c R i b 1 t v R. vna,qua u<pe»qua- 
fi Subunionem vocant,quod duo vo- 
cabulafignificet invnucoaluifle.pin- 
gitiirque duabus in longii porre&is li 
ncolis medio quafi ypfilo coniii&is v 
Vt /utQji/uepea^ro $? V/uef at. 

adscribvntvr quinque, nepc 

Aiow»A»,ideft Difparatio,teriuis fpi 
ritus figura , ad imam literam , idque 
intra ipfum vocabulum, vt quum ofi 
relatiuum fcribo ad vitandamhomo- 
nymiam Coniun&ionis oit. 
Xitijuui TBAfiotjideft Punftii perfe&u, 
quo ad itnum vltimar liters ajppofko. 



Digiti 



zed by G00gk 



t erimnatur a Grsecis & Latinis^erio- 
di,vt fignificetur, perfecta iam fentc- 
tia,quiefcendum. 

'S,Zyfxn (oiffWjideftJPilnAu medium, 
quo terminantur oratipnis membra 
qu£ Graeci x£?& vocant. Medium au- 
tem vocatur , turn quia in media pe- 
riodo & mediae literae precedent! ad- 
fcribitur, turn etiam quodmediocri- 
ter quiefcendum efle admoneat,non- 
du kilicet perfe&o oratipnis ambitu. 
Latini minus proprie id figniiicat v- 
no pu&o alteriimpofitp,hacfigura : 
T-jra$7^i},fiue KsBoSuztfwjd, eft Sub- 
diftin&iq,qua diftinguutur orationis 
Cqmmata,qua: a Latinislncifa nomi 
natur. Adfcribitur autem eadem nota 
. qua Diaftple,fed diuerfofitu, vltimfc 
kilicet Comatis Literal, declaratq} no 
tarn quiefcendu quam refpiradii. Sed 
a plerifqj Typpgraphis hodie haec no- 
ta etia Cobs diftingucndis adhibetur* 

B.iii. 



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zed by G00gk 



Haru aute triu quib' periodos meti 
mur exeplu hoc eftoex Demofthene. 

. Tlpcrnt f/.jd <$$j>6( (Ldiu)<)u\oij3i<;%on &> 

« / y Oft e «j/» > <T U i « 

Emf>aTnois,ideR Interrogation is fi- 
gnu,quodapudGrajcos pingitur te- 
nuis ipiritus nota pun&o fubicripta 
hoc modo ; 

ParetheGs fignii neq; in Graecis neqj 
in Latinis codicibus vetuftis reperias: 
fed qua? interiiciuntur , ea folet adhi- 
bita vtrinque hypoftigme diftihgui. 

Solet etiam iis qua; ir^ix^jid eft,vt 
Latini Gramatici loquutur, materia- 
literaccipiuntur,lineaimponi,vt * o 
SSrig^. Idqjetiavfurpaturad eadi- 
ftinguenda quae& appellatiua & pro- 
pria nominaelTe po(iunt,vtAt/)car aJ- 

»<*, &'<&£©*. fed de his ha&enus. 



Digiti 



zed by G00gk 



C OMP E N D I A LI T E R #%. v'k 

& nexus partim breuitatis, partim 
elcgantiae caiiffarcperti. 



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COMPENDIA QJARVNDAM 

artium propria,vt 

Grammaticorum, 

yt\ s fax* 

Eode modo & in reliquis ca(ibus,vt 

/« ft* puns, fM fAtnv. 
fit* (Mo&yfM* (urn. fj$ M*w- 

iffi x$<pj£&iop. $ ^Ji) TV. 

Mcdicorum, 



Digiti 



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£& wuafae % Jem!; 

$£ xjnu&n. ex vetcri tamen Pauli 
AEginctae codice perfpicuu eft , ea 
nota ctiam K?%Ai<te>ut fignificarL 

(RARACT1REI RIG I I f. E C T W D • 

loco fcalpti,quibus Nouum d. n. iesv Chrifti te- 
gmentum minore fbnna cxcuditR^tc^^ 

Act It Pf 

BfiC K* -• 5rCc 

r yf A A T t? 

E t Nr i> 9 

Zf{ e& . .' X* 

H » o • . ' * 4 

E O R V N D E M N E X V $, V A R 1 A O^T B 

& compendiaria feribendi ratio, qua dcgantius fori- 
bentesvtuntur. 



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JbL J*4 &* Sou; Shut) $ h <ty A JUu J) fa 

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EXE MP LA QjflBYS LEGEN- 

■* <Iis pueri proniintiationi afliiefiant, 
'fcChrifhanx ficlei difcat rudimeta. 

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Numcrus Grxcorum. 

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SC HOt I A I N QJT I BV$ "Bl- 
ip utatur de germ ana Graze* lingux 
- pronuntiatione. 

Dc Uteris in genere;dcindc dcxri Cadmi Uteris. 

GRammatici a Uteris tanquam i parte fimplicifiima 
exordiutur. Oratione cnim in qua veriantur, prima 
' • Omnium in vocabula , caquc rurfus in fyliabas, nifi quu 

; . monofyllabafunt, fyllabas demura in Ijtera^ diuidut>nifi 

2 quu & ip& cxyru yocali conftituuntuf.Quaobrc eciam 

\.. * v * ^ • Jjterat aGr«cis *>n*a,id e$ elcmeta vocatur,vt docetPla 

^ to in Crat7lo^&lKonvCus.Eadc verb etia ^ju^a-m. ap- 

- r ' > f ellatur a foJbendp^iue quod ex linei*conftcnt.$unr c- 

1 .* ; ^ niminuetacfimpliciflimis articulatac vocis fonis,certo li 

N ; * s nearam du&u exprimendis. Carterum iliumi hums mu- 

' " \ y ■ \ £cri$ qui* prinmf jrittf mortales auQpr^fuf ritj^on H- 

quet:de qua re fl iioetjvidfcPliniupi lib.7,cap.^.Ex Phoe 

tiicia quidem coiiftat a Cadmo in Craeciam illatas. Sed, 

' ' qupdipfiCrxciigUomuptjHebradsdpberijCarum^uc 

tionem, ipfa nomiha aperte declarant. Sexdecin* autem 

, t v initio fuifle,idcm; Phniii^ Dionyfius,& Plutarchus ye- 

■ « re fcribiint/Quum «iim inuen^ 

fonis fignificandifc, necefe eft profe&o in ofrirti lingua, 
y t qtiidem c6modc fcrii poffit,totidem oq^ninaliteras 
cxtare,quot iunt eius foni umplices . Alioquinifiuc plu- 
rcs fiue pauciores fuerint,& fcriptioni 6c pronuntiationi 
- niagnas tenehras offundi neceffe fucrit,. Idque fbliciti 
Crxcos obferuaflr ? vclh6c vnum litis oftendrt,quod in* 
tcr Elcachos £riftoceles nuJlam ex literisiallacem cdriu 
(ionem numcrat,quum nihil pofllt frequentiusoccurf e- 
re,fi vni liter* duplicem fonum, vel cotra vni fono duas 
fcteras tribueris.$impUces igitur Graces liguacibnos fex- 



Digiti 



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dcr^totidcmque ncccffarus literas cffc, ex co apparct, 
quod ex reliquis o&o qui tqtidem Uteris fcribuntur,aiii 
. fiht compofiti^dii fu^ptc natura iidem cum compofitis, 
ficut deinccps oftcdemus,Ac primo quidc loco de fexde 
cim illisantiquis Cadmi Uteris a nobis dicetur>ex quib' 
A 

Alpha, etfi a prima Hebraeorum litera Alcph nomen 
accepit,minime tameacundem (bnu exprimit. Hebraeis 
cnim,qui Vpcales in feribedo vel pmermittut, vel fub- 
fqribuntj Aleph non eft vocalis,fed tenuiffim* afpiratio- 
t nis nota,quae cuiufuis ex quinque vocalibusiono termj- 
nari poteftJd enim valet quod apud Graecos tenuis ipiri- 
. tiis. Alpha verb primae Latinorum literae & vocaii a re- 
fpondct, debdtque in imo gutturc pronuntiari ciare, & 
©reprprfus hiante. Maleigiturhpdie.fQleta.p.lcrifqUse 
fiermanis obfcuriorcfScmix^o quodam fbnoex ,a & o 
proferri. 

B 

OBctoaBcthHebrax)ram,vulgocorrupteVitaappella- 
,tur,3uplici crrorcSecunda enim litera eft e longum, n? 
I,ficut in wm oftendemusJpfumautem Beta cum y £6$. 
ionantcquae apud Latinos efc n fiytfAjA.* AEolici ]ocun> 
fucoeffitjperpcram certe confunditur, quum potius La*, 
jino b rclpondeat.Idque ita effe non modo liquet ex Civ 
ceronis ad Pactum cpiftola,in qua docct bini Latinum 5c 
Crxcum frith eodem forio pronuntiari folita.item ex Cr* 
tinp qui fit C? docet ouium vocem effe, id eft hi bc,rio 
ye y&item ex Varrone quinoftruni balare fiditium efli 
vult ab ilia ouium voce,quas idcirco Graeci £h" K<t rc&ius 
ypcaffcnt,quam>uSArt, Vox enim earum(inquit ille) non 
snep,fe4 bee fonare videtur.quem locum nuper quidanj 
in Graxo alpjiabeto corrupitl Hoc inquam^ion modo ex 
his ijationibus apparet, fed etiam ex eo aubd ipfum Bctt 
collocatur medium inter <& tenuc & ? alpiratum,V verb 
{foafonans ouniAO debet inter afpiratasnumeraruDcT 



Digiti 



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m&tiiliyawA* C>mim, ac prolnde literam qua isibftnt 
txprimitur , fobs AEolcs olim vfurpaffe,ne mo eft, opr- 
tior,qui ncfciat.Potera autcm etiam idargumerml affcr- 
te,qu6d Graeci in Latinis tranffercdis,pro b Latino fuum 
jtim, vt Fabius 9*Cioc, Tiberius wCt exo$, Gab inius ;<*£/- 
r/«c: & contra Latini pro £?ib Graecorum,fuum b v(ur- 
pent,vt3op£apo£ barharus,&a£ vaw Babylon, C*z%c Bac 
chus : fed nihil eft hoc argument© fallacius , quum nulla 
pcne fit litera quae in aliam non degeneret . itaque apud 
Grccos etiam legimus Mp?*c> j&aA^p/oc,j3*Air,quum La 
tine tame dicamus Verres, Valerius, Velum: & Latini a 
fiio;Viu£ &d& vado,a francctfta fafcino deriuantJtaque 
ab ifta argumentandi rationc vt lubrica & incerta,pror- 
fus abftincbimus. Cajterdm in huius literx pronuntia- 
tionc laborare praecipue debent Vafcones,ne cum v con 
fonante: Germani,nc cum tenui tili oppofita, id eft cum 
p,confundant* 

r ^ 
1 Gamma,fiue vt lories appeIlat,Gema,re(pondet g La* 
tinorum: in vtriufque tamen pronutiatione GalK & La- 
tlna & Graeca legentes peccare fi>lent,quoties vel e,veli, 
Tel aliqua ex lis Uteris fequitur,quas cum iota comndut, 
nempc m« cj.tunc enim nouum huic liters fonu que- 
dam tribuunt,cum i cordbnante(vt'quidcm vulgo pro* 
nuntiatur) comune.itique pro>«p^tidc,legut Iermanos. 
Ipfi autem Germani (equente o, eundem pene errorem 
committunt. pronuntiantenim iy* eio: ita tamen vt i 
cum o diphthongum impropriam coftituat.Scdvtraque 
banc pronuntiandi rationem ego quidem corrupt! effe 
iudico duas ob caufas.Primum enim certum eft i Cofo- 
nantis fonum a Graecis nunquam faiffe vfurpatum, ficut 
in iSim diccmus.Dcindc vni liters duplicem fonum tri- 
buere non potes, quih Grccos fatearis literarum inopia 
laborare, quod ne verifimile quidem effe potcft, Eodem 
igitur fono hare litera pronuntiari debet, quaccunque ta^ 



Digitized byCjOOQlC 



demrocalis fequatur,eo feilicct quern intcgru rctinuit 
ante a & o. Caetenhn ne hoc quidcm controuerfia ea- 
rn, quod doccnt Grammatid, > ante alterutn >, vel *, 
vel ^,vcl |^Scut r pronuntiari folcre, vt«>/i*©<,*/iuAi*, 
*J#«fr Angclus, Anciiia, Anchifes, quo modo proferre 
folct latini. Nam profe&o probabilc cft,Grxcos, fi pro- 
nutiatione mataflent,ip{am quoque litcram ruifle mu- 
taturos^ficut in <rvfX7i**yiJlc pro <nwrtwyiA<,Kj£Cct\t>f>ro 
i^TC*M,&fmiilibus:auod rantc »,& t ante 0collo-r 
cari non poflit,vt teftatur Dionyfius. Atqui tatum abeft 
ytfuvm y fequentibu s i] lis liter is mu tar in t in r,vtcon- 
xr&fi ipfum r occurrerit/oleant conuertere in >, vfiuta 
. ilia orthographic regula quam tr adit Gaza, To' f, #£71 

Quxfbvcroquaratiqnedicipoteir, r comierti in >,vt 
dcindc ipfum > ficut r prpnuntictur? Nam <*rte potius 
ipfum r 4eruari,& >,fi occurriu*et,in > conuerti pporoiA 
rat.Qu&d fi Latinam pronunttationem obiicias,refpon- 
dco,non de Latina,feddc Gracca lingua hie a nobis quae* 
ri. G aute in n a Latinis rrmtari no magismiror, quam 
A in IvtiJbantf Vlyfles,'&in b vt/rVbis. Quod fi rut 
fum opponas,poftulare pronuntiationis rationem: iteru 
quaram cur igitur r quum eiufmodi locisoccurritjin > 
couertatur,ac no potius retineatur: deinde quid tandem 
caufefit cur hocdicamus pofcere pronunriandi rationc: 
quum potius ipfum 9 cum iilis Uteris cohzrere no poflc 
Pionyfius doceat , & regula ilia orthographic id apertc 
declarct.Certe duplex n ipfietiam Latini pronuntiant* 
y t aggrego, agger, aggero: & tanto mollius cflc vidctur 
quam duplex *^quanto niollius pronutiatur > quam xk 
lllud autem ** & Latini &Graxi vfurpat,vt 4h%*mm £c 
clcfia^ic igitur fentio quod ad duplex >f attinet.Sed Ci- 
ne fct;cor ante y ,vel «>yel f, > profer ri non poflc,pracfcr-» 
tim in vltimis iyllabi* YtoVfcf*** A«>&fc5>|jfyrin*,Pha, 
Ifl&lynXjquia tun^irmn f nuJUm habtt coiun&un yq 



Digiti 



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catc cum quacohaereatSed quid Mc racias,quu diferte 
cant Graeci ipfum r iifdem his Uteris praeponi non poffc* 
quod fi vcrum eft,cur Latini tamen id faciunt?((cribunfc 
cnim Anciilae,Arixur,Anchifes)& Graeci Grammaticicur 
y ante has literas vt r pronuntiandum effe docent ? Nam 
fi pronuntiari potcft ac debet, certe etiam fcribi. Refpon 
deo,inhuiu(modi vocabulis literam quidem n&iLa* 
tiriis fcribi, 8c a Graecis pronuntiari, fed adulterinam,fi^ 
cutGelliusexNigidioobferuauit.Nam n non effe (in- 
quit Nigidius ) lingua indicio eft : nam fi ea litera effet*, 
lingua palatum tangeret . Hanc ergo do&iffimi Gram- 
ma ticipraeceptionemfifequamur,dicemus r ante y'k 
j£ \ , mutari a Graecis in >, non vt ipfum y enuntietur, 
(nam id fieri non poteft) fed vt fignificetur illud » pere- 
gfirio quodam fono effe pf onuntiandum,id eft infirafto', 
ita vt lingua palatum non feriat,quomodo etiarnhu ho- 
die a GalUs pronuntiari (biet m, vel n,in mediis praefer- 
tim di&iohibus quum fyllabam claudunt.&dhlc quasi 
poteft,quum nulla fit iftius foni affinitas cum >,cur po- 
tilfimum earn literam Graeci delegerint,in quam ipfum 
t mutaretur:Re(podeo,non temere id fa&u videri. Nam 
primum omnium, quia r ante has literas non erat pro- 
nuntiandum fuo illo legitimo (bno, linguae (cilicet mu- 
erbne palatum feriente , Graeci mutandum cenluerunt, 
quum Latini nihilominus retinuerint.Iam vero ad hand 
mutationem deligenda fuit litera,cuius germana pronil 
tiatio nullum hiclocum habere poffet Nam alioqui fu- 
turumeratvtle&oribus imp6neretur:Velutifiprb pel* 
Aawf feripfiffem $i***|,vei 9«AaJ*f,velaliquideiufinodi, 
natafeiffetdiuerfapronuntiatio ab ea qua debet iltud> 
infra&um fignificare. Earn igitur literam delegerut quae, 
ctia vt velis, pronutiari legitimo fono fuo non poflit, > 
fcilicct ante *,yel ^,vel |.Nam ante >(ficuti dixi)fah£ vi 
detur ea ratio nullum habere locuni. Mihi tameriOft di-i 
cam quod fentio)(apicntiores in to Latini vidctur^quod 



Digiti 



zed by G00gk 



fuum nretinuerint, ficut & Crardfuum natc r J* f. SeA 

dehiscniditidtiudicent. 

i : -..— ■ . A ■ ..... : y 

Delta Latino d refpodct, a Cratcis autem hodie quaf$ 
bbefa voce cnuntiatur, (bno proximo ad J accedete: quo 
snodo Hebrad fuum Dalcth enuntiant quando punftum 
habet,quod tpfi daghes appelkntVVefum ft hare prontm- 
tiatio germana cflet, oportuerat inter afpiratas rccenfc- 
fi. Wequeehim Delta hac afpiratione minus frangitur, 
qnam.velT,vd^,vel*,exqiubusoriuntur 9 9 j^iDeeft 
autem GrxcislbniisilleHebraeorunijiicutetiam ing cc? 
ftingit;quem Grxci nunquam^afptran^Hebrxt fepc. , ; 

E pfilon vna eft litcra ex lis quatuor ,quas Plato in 
Cra^ftfftnMii HGraeicis pr6nUntiari,quuttt reliqu* non 
enuntientur/ed tatim ip(arum ndminaivt Alpna,Beta,, 
^^^bmnciltoarpratter o ar&*;&fiisautert) Pla- 
tonis verbis liquet epitheton illudquo pfrfoifvocatur^d 
i& tertUes poff ea adieftum eflc quum inter \ fc a dift in^ : 
gui,&illud cjmdem inter Kteras Jidc Vero iriter diphtho-? 
gos numerari carjiflet.Vetefe$eriim initio banc litcrari? 
m vocabant^cut ofteridit Pliitarchus in e6 libello queml 
inferipfit /#£?$ W^«ft^p/r, * i*bfr enrrrem Eurtathr 
us lliados c.Itcm NigidiusapudCclliumlib.r^cap.t^f 
met ito quidem in. ep Graecos reprehendens. 

Totar^ftondet iLadno^impliciffimavocali$,vtlp!ip ? 
tie etiamn^ara Sedapud Greeds nuhquatri eXfConfo-* 
lians:Mquem ifc vbcabulis quae vela latniis vel abHe-" 
brxis frutuaritur; oeceuario ex vhafy Haba duas confti^ 2 
tuuntjVt ft tulius Ctarce dicas Ioum 6& ex trityllabo qua- 1 
drifyltabum efflciasific etiani l*tt& cVl&wdfwic, & fimilia 
quae ab Hebneis oriorttur* . c t . ; ^ 

Cappafiuc Copp*eundcmlbnumha$e*«im c La^ 



Digiti 



zed by G00gk 



tino,eum que apud GWos tncormpmm^uumatefea* 
foleacantee & i aliter quim ante a o ^ u prpimntiari. 
QuodautcmaGrammatici$prarcipitur,prsccdetc > i- 
pfum « m>degenerarc>hocpaulo amediximiucuf no 
bisnonprobetur* 

A 

Lambda litera maxime lubrica idem valet quod 1. 

M J 

f Mt/,fiuc(vt Iones loquutur )M<r,idem valet quod Lati- 
num m,nequc vllas apudGrarcos di&ionrs claudit, vt re- 
Ac Fabius annotauit.Vulgo autem a Gallis peffime pro- 
nutiatur, quotas fyllabam claudit^nfrado fcilicct,fbno 
2c ore hiulco,quuna debeat cbmpreffis labiiscfferri. 
N . ; . . 

Kv refpondetn Latino, debitque linguae mucront 
intimos dentcs 8c palatum feriente cnuntiaq, fiue /ylla- 
ba inchoet fiue claudat, apud Graeco$.pra*fcrtim T Itaquo 
idem inhac literayitium admittitur,quqd iniuueriore 
a Gallis pleruque, exceptis Normanis, quihanc literati! 
tarn egregie exprimuntLatinapronuntiantcsiquim vi- 
tiole quum Gallica legunc Contend funt enim GaJli di- 
midiato m & n fono, quum fyllabam claudunt, vt inter 
has duas literas .diftinguere non poiHs, immp verq ncu* 
craaudiatun, - .„ , : , 

O micr5,& ipfum quoque(yt ait Platoja (irtcis pro- 
nuntiatur4taque hoc cpitheton ei {*#<£ fldditum eft*vt 
ab altero co magno diftingucretur, alic^uiu & potcrat • 
pfHon,ideft tenuevocari. Nam& spfum initio diceba- 
tur y>ficut teftadjtur Euftathius & Nigidius apud GelliuV 
& aperthis etiim liquet ex iilo epigramm^ quod The* 
lymachi Sophiftae monimento inferiptumgrat* ytdocct 
Athcnseuslib.io.Eft autem eiufinodL ]. 



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^Ram feis Uteris cxpfSnitiif 5pdffvfia^( itaque penultlnia 
litcra * non o, eo tempore dicebacur.Idem tamen fnibit 
Graccos quum * diphthongum fignificare vellent,injer- 
dumiblo o vfos effe: ex qua coniuetudine diftichofi U- 
lud. Aufbnii,alioquin perplexum,explicanduni eft, 
Vna fuit quondam qua refpondere Lacones 
Littefa,& irato Regi placuere tiegaiites . 
' Nimirum o,noh i%ficut quidamexiftimauit. Ind*& opi 
hot fedium , vf nomiuk , *apu J d Latinos in us definentia, 
(quod tamen craffioreiono exprimeDatuf,ficut in v di- 
cemus ) Graci per fimplex o exprefferirit , vt Ptfbiicoia 
w^iK/Aa^jNumitorNo/uUTtop^abius $at£toc 3 8c fimilia.itc 
vt Latini o Graecoru,(iio v exprefTerimyvt oVUj*t£ Vlyf- 
!es. Atque etiamnum liodie magna Gallia; Lugduncnfis 
jars fie o prohUntiantjVt pu intelligas.Narbonenfis eo 
tra,ou mutat iri o.Sedre&iUs omninb fecerunt recentio- 
res qui o ab * diphthongo & appellatione 8c.fcripti6ne 
diftinxenirit .Debet enim o intra iplum palatum ore rc£- 
tundo enuntiari,qubd &tyk figura indicate vcro,quia 
v habet admixtumjetia lafeiqrii copreffione ihdfget; ft£- 
que fimplice, fed compofitb fono conftat.ltaque in^me- 
irito Graecis obi^uni fiiityi^s^tton^onV ytib elemctp 
'ibmmi v Latinirejp^fentare.Cutenim^HiliteriCcO'- 
pofitum fonum exprimant? „/' a *" 

Pi idem valet quod piquoS^er^rJaGTermanisru.b 
conrUnditur,ficut d cum fV& V confbhattVcum f5&'^J 
cum c.Eorum tamen errorl videntur GrSmatfcI patrb- 
tinati,quum mbneiit vt pr^cedfhte /u, e^ratur *ficifc 
b tattnu.Sed nulla eft ratiojOpinor,qua pbtflt ifta??«- 
ceptibconfirmafi. ; jt ' "- '"' -'* J ; ' ;i -^-^ '> "-;/ 

Rho idem valet fyubcf r Latinum^ m6Uiunameri$ 
Grafcis enuntiatiittmtib Wcabul6rtim^;c^inriledl6qut?- 
$uc queries geiriHikhiri thftrt* a^itt6\ie qfia*4bftuik 

D.i* 



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lion afpcriorem , vt nonnulli volurrant , fed craflloron 
minu|quefkcumefficiat. 

Sigma,quod Dorcs San vocantjficut Herodotus & alii 
tcftanrur,rcfpondet f Latino,quod male a Gallis infra&o 
fono 3c ficut Zain Hebrxovum pronuntiari folct^quoties 
vel in eadcm,vcl in diuerfis diftionibus reperitur media 
inter duas vqcales.Sic enim Caufa pronuntiat,adi Cauza 
fcriptum effet, vt quide vulgo Zeta efferri folet.Sed hoc 
vitium quum nonulli vitare fhideant^m aliud incidunt, 
ita pronuntianees acfi duplex fffcriptum eflet. Modus er 
gO tenendus eft, vt lenis fibilus audiatur.Carterum diuer 
lam olim fuiffc hums liters maiufculx figura ab ea quae 
nunc vfurpatur, ex eo liquere poteft , quod ab Euripide 
& Theodc&e comparatur cincinno retorto,ab Agathorie 
vero acui Scythico:quorum verms mo loco fubiiciemus 
ex x. Athenaej libro. Apparet autem haec eius figura in ve- 
Qi.ftis codicibus, & numis 3 eadem prorfus ac c Latino- 
xum>nul quod extrema cornua habet intus magis refle- 
xa^c magis oblonga^hoc modo Q. 
T 

Tau refpondet e Latino* A Grammaticis autem con* 
fundi tur cum ^quoties r pnscedit 9 vt tdi andi,quu t 
ante n,nc Latini quidem reipuant. 

r 

T pfilon nonulli Pythagora tribuunt Sed perpera ho 
die^ofunditur cu Iota,ad cui* exilitate" proximc accedit. 
' Nam eo folo kiter fe diffcrunt,Dionyfio tefte,quod Iota 
pronuntietur fpiritu dentibus illifo, &ore paululum a- 
perto: v pfilon vcr6 cotraftis labiis^quafi ftrangulato fpi 
ritu efFeratur,itavt anguftus {onus effluat.Itaque nemini 
dubium effe debet quin illud fit quod v Gallicum a Ger 
manis dicitur, qui (cilicet veteresXarinos imttati (iicut 
etiamnumrK)dicItali,&pler£queali$rmionc$)v Lati- 
juunno* alitor pronuntiant qium nuc Galli, Grxcosfc- 



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quutijou diphthongimi. Quamobrem coguntur iflicht 
rafteru inopia vni Etera? dupliccm fonu tribucrc , quern 
tamcn appofito quodam apice diftinguunt. Sed & Lati- 
ni qui eodem modo fuum v plerunque pronuntiabant, 
dcnfo fcilicct & obfcuro illo fono, in quibufdam tamcn 
vocabulis(vt ait Fabius) medio quodam fono efferebant 
inter u & i, id eft qui neque tarn craflus effet atque u f 
quern fcilicet efferebant pro ou, neque tarn exilisquim 
i.Vnde faftu cflTe ait, vt pro Optumus 8c Maxumus fcri- 
ptum fit primum a C. Carfare Optimus 8c Maximus:que 
reliqui pofteafunt imitati,quianimirum u ill ud exile 
de quo loquimur , propter exihtatem multo propius ad 
r quam ad v accedifcadeo quide vt Ouidius libro de Re* 
medio amorisfecundojwec duo nomina Chryfci$& Bri- 
fei's prima tatum lttera differre fcribat. Itaque Latini pro 
11 tenui in fuis vocabulis (cribebant i: in Grxcis vero fi- 
cut pcregrinum fonum,fic ctiam v pfilon Crxcum rcti- 
nueruntjVt in Sylla,Inclytus 8c fimilibus,quae hodie pcr- 
peram per i pronutiantur.In nonullis tamen pro v pfilo 
liium u vfurparunt,vt in tu/us/uper, id eft t^oSc, vaip', 
tc fimilibus , qua? baud litis fcio an fuo u,id eft v,an ve- 
ro potius u tenui 8c Crxco pronunriarint. Nobis autem 
nunc quidem (at eft germanum huius literae fonum affe 
ruuTe.Nam altet illc de quo fcribit Athenaeus libro deci 
mo,quii fcilket folu v pro diphthongo ov fcribebatur>ad 
fimplicem huius literae pronuntiationem non pertinet. 



»E RIU^YIS OCTO UTERIS 

a Palamedc 8c Simonide repertis. 

ET h* quidem fun t fexdecim ill* literae ex Phoenicia 
in Gratciama Cadmo illata: , & totidem fonisfin*. 
plicibusexprimcndis repert*. Quod autem alia? praetor- 

D.ii. 



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eaofto iUis addit* fintpartim a Palamede, partim a Si- 
monide,id nulla quidem neccffitate fa^um eft : fed ma- 
xkno tamen cum fru&u,vt fcriptio minuscflet laborio- 
la.Quum enim omncs vocales ancipites eflent, id eft in 
nonnullis vocabulis produ£te,in nonnullis breuiter pro- 
nuntiarentur,idque difcrimen apicibus diftingui necef- 
fc eflet.-Simonidcs duas excogitauit literas it & «,cx qui- 
bus ilia « k>ngum,haec o produdumfignificaret: nempe 
vt qui Grcca fcriberent>molcftia liberaretur illos apices 
. icribendi,quu iam i & o fblum breuia effent.Cur autcm 
in reliquis tribus,nempe a i v y idem non fit fa&um,hax 
caufa eft,ni fallor, quod hx tres vocales fint indifferctes, 
id eft modo produ£be,modb breues in iifdem vocabulis: 
ilia? vero dux « & o,ante reperta » & a>,effent duntaxat 
ancipites, id eft in nonnullis nature breues, in nonnullis 
produ&x. Itaque reperiendae fiiiflent in fumma Vocaliu 
ngurx tredecim. Opbrtuiffet enim ad iilas ftpte vfitatas, 
tres alias accedere, quibus a i v correptx, itimquetres 
alias quibus exdem longs fignificarentur.Ifta ver6 voca- 
lium multitudo vua fait potius ofticere,quam prodefle, 
quum breues & correptas fyllabas pueri ex nutricibus di ^ 
fcerent. Prxterea quum fa?pe 9 occurreret cum quibuf- 
dam Mutis in eadem Ivllaba c6iun£rum,copendia qua*- 
dam excogitarunt,quibus geminx literx vno duftu fcri- 
bantur,puta £| ^,quas literas idcirco duplices vocant. 
Poftremo quum,vt (cribit Euftathius in Iliad.*,tribus li 
teris v k r fbleret intcrdum imponi fpiritus denfus, in- 
terdum tenuis (nam fblx ilk Mutx apud Grxcos afpira- 
tur)repertx funt tres notx,quibus exdem ilia? alpiratx li 
terxfignificarentur,vt apiccm inferibere minimefitne- 
ccfle,nempe <p % 0,~quas literas ob earn caufam afpiratas 
appellant^ed de his age figillatim dicamus. 
H 
EtaabHethdeniiffimaHebra»rum confonante no- 
men traxitjguanuis(,quod etiam de Alpha diximus) Vo- 



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c&Iem,non Confbnantem cxjSimat: TdT qfuod non moib 
ipfa denominatifcdeclarat, fed illud ctia quod Athenaeus 
lib.^/cribit his verbis,Oj^uij </J £ J>* 7? n ^t^iownmiju." 
eSzq tjt£ *»*«#$ ¥ Jktmcu. Jio^> £ Vuucuoi <w& munkv $£ 
Jkrtwc/u&titv bv4iMr*>v 7B if <s^^ct^oui>id eft, Vc teres arbi~ 
tror v elemcnto afpirationem formafTe . quamobrem e- 
tjam Romani omnibus afpiratis nominibus m praefcri- < 
bunt.Ha&enus Athena»us.Eam autem notatn poftea pro 
t longo Graecia vfurpauit,vtdifcrteteftatur Plato in Cra- 
tylo,his verbis,* ;S m i^wtdat^d^et. ( li to xofor,id eft,* e- 
nim non vfurp4bamus olim ; fed c. Sed & in eodem dia- 
logo (cribit 3 pro /, quo veteres libenter vteretur, vfurpa- 
ri coepifTe vel f vci *> cl^riores fcilicet 5c magis infignes 
literas.Ex quibus verbis apparet,perperam eosfacere qui 
cu io # ta confundunt, ficut hodie folent homines alioquia 
valde eruditi,a quibus ego magnopere«cotendo vt ratio- 
nem tandem authoritate veterum confirmatam difcant 
deprauatae confuetudini antepone/e. Quid fcripfcrit Eu 
ftathius lib. Iliad, rt, de parechefi loquens,non ignororfed 
quam deprauata fuerit ipfius temporeGraeca pronuntia- 
tio,vel illud declarat^quod non rnQ<#> » cum j/ed etiaw, 
/,& «, deinde u & w, poftrerno etify i confundit. Itaque 
tanti non debet efle vnius recentioris autboritas, vt y c* 
teribus omnibus opponatur.quu prafcrtim hacc depraua 
tio maximas lcribetibusobiiciatdifficultates,du hifitat 
quod per i profertur/itne per /,ari per if, vel i/,vel «,vel <w, 
vcl lcribendu. Quod fi ha rationes no fufficiunt,age z~ 
lias etiam proferamus.Quaero igitur fi » vt i proftrendii 
cft,cuynuentumfit & vfurpatum,quum * anctpsma* 
neat?qua?ro etiam cur in praeteriti augmentoi in m mu- 
tetur.Kam certe i quanuis tenue,vberius tarn en eft qua 
i: vt fi in iota mutes,non augeri, fed imminui videatiuv 
Quaero demum cur h a Latinis Grxca verba vfurpantk 
feus nunquam mutctur in I , nifi fortafle in veftis ah i- 
«8»foquod tamen omnibus non placekfed in e pcrpetu6j 

D.iiu 



. 



Yel breue,vt xp*c crepida: vd logum, vt wwrixfcni Pene- 
lope. Na fegus & fama & fimilia non deducuntur a Grae 
ci$ ipnyn & <?*/** Jed vcre Dorica fut, qua dialedo magna 
Grxcia vtebatur.His denique accedit Gaz* illius do&if- 
fimiau&oritas quilib.i 1 i, *flf &c nojaepfic fcribit, de 
Teporu notis loquens.ku /$ oav ?jvl\cli t<r&c eJ^ro? ii f £ 

i5 f £ o ifeA'jIii'n }8 * £ a fiinukapSdJorn c Kclpo/ufo. id eft f 
Erat igitur olim fortaflis iftis fignis locus non lolum in 
§ & •, Ted etiam in * & * & a. Nunc vcro in f quidem & • 
redundant^quia h 5c. a aflumpris vtimur in fcribendo. 

a 

n mega,id eft o magnum,ita vocatum eft ex collatio- 
ne cum altera quod fMKph dicitur.Eft enim re vera ma~ 

tium, fiuc quantitatem (pedes (eft enim natura longu) 
uenguram,quum fit veluti ex duobus •« conflatum 
cxvecerum confuetudine,qui (vt inquit Fabius)antere- 
percam temporis longi notam, vocales produftas in fcri 
bendo geminabant Nunc tamen ita pingitur periodoru 
initiis,vt veterem figuram nullo modo referat:in ipfo vc 
ro contextu,ita vt duplex w potius quam duplex oo refe- 
rat : qui error Euftathit iam artate inoleuerat , ficut ap- 
paretexipfiuscommentariis Iliad, a. Ethxc quidem de 
Vocalibus. 

Z 
Ex tribus autem Duplicibus literis^feu potius literari 
compendiis , Zcta oppofuimus Tfade Hcbratorum,'non 
Zain.Neque enim pronuntiari debet,ficut hodiea Gallis 
f litem effertur quu eft inter duas vocales media, neque 
ctia vt duplex fli fed vt df,qui Tonus eft fuauiffimus, & a 
Latinis nuquam fatis rede exprimi potuit,vt ait Fabius: 
dcclinant nimir urn ad t£ficut 3c Hebrari faciunt. Caneru 
quod omnes aflerunt Grxci Grammatici, nimir um non 
di^vt diximus)fed 13 valerejioc mihi quidem probari no 
(oteft. Nam primum omnium debit inter ores duplices 



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eadem eflc analogia. Cater* autero no valcnt #*, vcl <*» 
fed** & xtr.DCindevbi ilia cflct huiusli terse fuauitas, 
quaFabiiisteftaturlib.x 1 1, nulla dulci'fpirare* Praetcr- 
ca quum hoc iidem Grammatici obferuent, quoties ni- 
mirum dua? confonantes in themace reperiuntw^priorc 
efle chara&erifticam qua?(quoad eius fieri poteft)inprar- 
terito medio & aorifto fecundo feruetur : certe aoriftus 
fecundus i<p&t<ht y oftendit thema 9&%c* fie pronuntia- 
dum efle,vt p^fiTow no pyU<h> audiatur.Poftremo quu 
omnes cradanr valere <rJ\nemo tamen ita pronuntiat>i(ed 
Galli quidem vt # infrtcKi (bnant, Cermani vero & Itali 
vel inuiti veram pi onuntiationem retinuerunt. Decepti 
aucem videntur(quod eorum pace dixcrim) Grarci Gra- 
macict Doricadiale&o,vt £dicercnt /# valere .dicunt e-. 
pirn Dores eveiffe pro <jvzI{q)> & fimilia. Sed hoc fit per 
litcrarummetathefin,quam imitati funtLatini quu pro 
0*C« pronuntiarent $et<r<fo 3 vi\dc fuum vado deduxerue: 
& ab o (a odor,& pro M«#r£ec Medentius aliquando fcri 
bebanr>vc teftatur Prilcianus.Cxterum quodapud Pio-. 
nyfinmquoqixc'mlibif^tnwdioia^inju^nof legitur f 
valere #<T , eum fane locum non dubito atfirmare ab iis 
cfle corruptunijqui ex aliorum Gramaticorum opinio- 
ne reftituendum putarunc . Id enim apparet ex eo quo4 

?>aulo poft^uum inter (e tres duplices liter as comparat^ 
uauiffimum efle dicit &quia reliquxdua?>ncmpe £ per 
*,4 vcro per * fibilum efFiciant,qux ambae funt tenucs: 
f vero fenfim & leniter (piritu afpiretur. Ex quibus ver- 
bis quis illud non videat, duplicium iiterarum naturara 
ex fibiio xftimar i?quod fieri no poteft in £fi vt c$ pro- 
nun ties, nam ita futurum cflet vt non #, fed # poti^i- 
mum audiretur, & a 9 pnecedente minime lenircturjad 
fuauiflimum ilium fibilum exprimendum. \ 

a i 

Xi valet cs vel gs, quod exobliquorum analogia ap» 
paret. Dicimus enim fowf qoshkoc* & cu/ni mhvy+ 

D.illK 



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Interdum tame * in obliquis afpiratur ,fed prafter refifi, 
naturam.Nam inter x & a locus afpirationi nullus effo 
poteft. Itaque quanuis dicamus fy>/| ler^ft .rainime ta- 
men cxiftimandum eft \ in fy> &valere y*. 

' Pfi valet jGc>vt Ae^4 Ae££°fcvel™,vtxj5Ka64 ****»- 
«vt.Exiftimat tamen Prifcianus volubilius quiddam fo- 
nare quam p£ fed nefcio quam refie . E t hax quidem do 
duplicibus. 

Inafpiratis au tern primum omnium vetus error ille 
corrigendus videtur, quo nonnulli iampridem has lite- 
fas pro afpiratis afperas nominant, quum potius denfas 
& craflas vbcare oporteat . Neque enim a Qrxcis ifQtjfat 
X&iujuLCLTn>(tA, jWadicutur: quod copiofioremfpiritum 
requirarit,vt fit earum opima & quafi adipalis pronutiar 
tio.Quamobrem etialiterasillas oppofitas non lenes,fe4* 
4/A«>id eft tenues & exiles appellate R potius litcra eft a- 
fpera,&lcotri admodu lenisjficut Ouidius his verficulis 
optime declarat de Remuriis loquens,qua? poftea JLemu 
riadi&afunt. 

. Afpera(inquit)mutata eft in lenem tempore logo 
Littera,quae toto nomine prima fiiit. 
Itaqu£ a Graecis initio di&ionum, & fiquando gemi- 
Jiata occurrerit,addito fpiritu denfo lenitur:tantum ab- 
H vtre&e faciant qui denfum cum afpero cofundunt. 
JBx his igitur Uteris 

O 
TJtfeta, fonefta ilia in capitalibus iudiciis liter a (quod 
di&kme 0<*# ot7»c inchoet) norhen quide fumpfit a Teth 
He6rax>rum, fed idem tamen valet quod illoru Tau fine 
4&hes,id eft Th: quod ftudiofi obferuare debent,rie cu 
tenui T eonfundant , deinde etiam ne ita effefaht vt *, 
«jdo modo quendam atioquineruditi&mum hominem 
iutetia: pronuntiantem audire memini.Hunc autem (b 
Hum JLatini in folis Grccis di&ionibus retinucrunt. ' 



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Phirelpondetf Latino, id eft *nfSiy*wx& AEoliav 
vt nuc quidem effertur. Na olim(vt re&e fcrtbit Prifcia 
nus)f vero n tfyajup.* fono enuntiabatur, itaicilicet vt 
nuc v cofonas:eratque is (onus folis inter Graxos AEo- 
libus peculiaris.Sed ppftea in eius locum (ucceffit v con 
fonansjipfum verodigama f in locum p a(pirati:quod 
tamcn in vocabulis Graecis feruatu eft,vt in Philologia, 
Philofophia,Philomela,& multis ciufmodi.Pauca tame 
excipiutur,vt fama,fuga 3 fagus,aGraecis W(*»#u)#W)pc 9 
§c alia przeterea nonnulla quae vfus obtinuit vt per fieri 
Derentur,quauis Gracafint.Haec igitur caufa eft cur Ci- 
cero pro Fundanio(ficut annotat Fabius)teftem imferit 
qui primani eius literam dicere npn poue&Quum enim 
cflet digama,Graecus ille teftis vel eius liter* fonu igno- 
rabat,a folis fcilicet AEolibus inter Craecos vfurpatum, 
vel certe pronutiabatymianum hodie Germani folet: 
ita fcilicet vt is fonus audiretur que nuc tribuimus v co 
fonauti,quu^x Latinorumconfuetudine,quaipfe igno 
rabat,no vtdigama,(ed vt it afpiratu eflet enuntiadu,id 
eft vt ? Graecoru. Nam idcirco etia ipfi pro Fabius & Fa 
bricius (cribunt <p<x.£io$ & potG&iuo <.illa vero quae a Lati- 
nis per v confonantem proferuntur, per * diphthongu: 
ficut exDionyfio apparet lib.ap»^qoA«>W *,vt pro Velia 
& Valerius,oJ*W $c Odct^e/oc^uOto fyllabaru numero, 
quod earn literam eumque fonum ioli exGraxis AEoles 
vliirparent. Apud Latinos igitur quiim f in p afpirati (6 
num fuccefliflet,vha v litera, propter character um in- 
opiam, & pro vocali & pro confonante cocpit vfurpari. 
Idcirco Glaudius Caefar 7v diyec/u^a vfum Voluitreuoca- 
re in v confoiiantis locum , fed inuerfa eius figura vt J, 
idque necefiar ip,ne cu f cofundei etur, quod pro ph Ion 
ga iam confuetudine vfurpabatur. Conformant haec igi- 
tur noftram de f litera opinionem, & fatis(ni fallor)ofte 
dunt cos non refte fentire qui inter f & ph difcrimen a- 



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iiquod conantur conftituerc. 

Chi idem valet quod chjfed a noftris Catiishufc pro* 
auntiationi parum affuetis, vel nimium crafle enuntia- 
turjvclcunic tenui confunditur. 

Et hac quidem habuimus hoc tepore quae de Uteris* 
germana earum pronuntiationc diceremus.Subtiliu$ c- 
mm fingularum naturam arftimare, Oratoris eft potius 
quam Grimatici.Ltbuitautem quofflam Euripidis val- 
de artificiofos &feftiuo$ verfus exAthenaro fubiiccrc, 
ex quibus cognofecre liceat anriquasquarundam litora- 
ruformas.Apud Euripidem igitur inThefeo paftor qui^ 
dam literaru impcritusjitcras tamen quibusThefei no- 
men fcribitur iic depingit. 

ltcp<pa} Ji hi %(*,tsi\ *xfnn*/u*CA** 

OviBf J? ty 0M/u7ef or ftfVa £? iu 
To iiunpoi Ji <©€?•» 4^5 xctpfAoi A'o, 9 
Ttu>m( Atpyi 4 * h*qw\ g am» pa. 
TclntJi&9tyvxcUu>C*iMy$oi C 

To 4*<w ni*rnttA» $ «c •>*>* /^ • 

UAf.-ivyvflof a**<* dtuapS 9 est**** y 

!&&*&) dp «i«V At J>H»7»r A'o, 

AviaiA fftwnfi^tatf «c p ** &&*r. 

Tifioi'diotJiitfielr* W¥*9ty«C C 

Subiicitautem idem Athcnxus Agathonis ScTheode- 
Ctx eius argumenti verficulos ab iftis non multum diuer 
fos,nifi quod Sigma comparant arcui $cy thico, E pfiloa 
?cr# tfidentt in latus verfo. 



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D 



D ft DlrMTHONOII. 

Iphthongus ita f >let denniriaCramaticis,tefitfyI 
laba ex duabus Vocalibus conflata fonum luu reti- 
nentibus.Ego vero malim dicere,In vnam mixtam voce 
coeuntibus (namaboquinquandodiftin&atfuntvoca- 
liu voces,duar fyllab* nafcatur neceflc eft) aut hoc certfc 
addiderim definition Qux raptim & vno fpiritu pro- 
ferripofiunr. 

Sut igitur propria diphthogi quibushxc definitio co- 
ncnit,cuiufmodi numerator iex,inter quas rurfus difcer 
nere licet.Nam melius inter fe coalefcunt <C & oi/> quam 
carter x:mclius item « quam <a:pcfllme omnium cw & $u 
$ed de his quoque figillatim diueremus. 
AI 
A I no dubiii eft quin Latinorum airefpodeat^raptim 
fcilicet & vno fpiritu pronutiato , vt poft * no refpires, 
ne duae fyllabx pro vna audiantur.Eam diphthongu ve- 
teres JLatini vfurpabant,vt docent Fabius & Gellius. Sed 
poftea quu viderentur non fine aliquo hiatu coalefcerc 
dux ifta? tarn diuerfx vocales,vna fcilicet clarifllma^alte 
ra vero plane exilis,ide6 Latini mutarut a* in x diphthi 
gu:qux quide ita facile pronutiatur,vt neque a,nequc e 9 
led mixtu ex vtrtfque fonu aperte audias.Pra?buit tamea 
hare mutatio erroris occafionem iis qui & Crxca legcn- 
tes & JLatina,non alitcr effcrunt ai & x quam e (implex, 
manifefto errore: qui tamen Euftathii Homeri interpre 
tis xtate iam irrepferat,ficut fupraoftendimus quum de 

* loqucremur . Galli vero quum Latinam diphthogum 

* exprimant,Grxcam tamen cq perpcramfcribunt,ficut 
in his vocabulis awaretyifeynutfoH/naijbrefaire, & limili- 
bus,aut e quod apertum vocant, vt/<#, mre>fer. Picardi 
tamen & Narbonenfes germanum huius fonum expri- 
munt y quum faircyttimer y 8c fimilia ita pronuntiant vt dif- 
(yllab* fint, &nihilominus vtriufque vocalis fonum fa- 



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cile inteHigas vno fpiricu enuntiatum. 

S AT 

AT, id eft au:vt Aulus ATaoV> & aula euk&jamc pro* 
fcrtur vt af: quern errorem nonnulli quum vellent cor- 
rigere > in alium inciderunt nihilo minorem .Tradunt 
enim v in hac diphthongo ita efTe pronuntiandum vt 
in auc fi e fuftuleris,ita vt u cofonas audiatur .Quafi ve- 
rb vel v apud Grxcos confbnans efle poflit, vel inter di- 
phthongos numerentur eaefyllaba? qua? ex vocali & con- 
fonante componuntur.Eft igitur craffior & ineptior hie 
error,quam vtrefutatjone indigeat . Nam etiam vt haec 
illis concederem , quo modo tandem illos accufatiuos 
XctZrjavf pronunties i Galli vero flue Latina,fiue lua le- 
gant,quanuis au fcribant>tamen ita proferunt vt fonum 
ex a & o mixtum intelligas: in quo etiam peccat procul- 
dubio,quum a & u vno fpiritu & fubita pronuntiatione 
potius debeat efferri, ficut memini vnum inter cxteros 
D. Alciatum iurifconfultorum eruditiflimum, ohm au- 
dire expeditiflime pronuntiantem , quum Biturigibus 
fumma cum laude iuriiprudentiam profiteretur . Sed ab 
hoc fono Galli abhorret, propterea quod fine aliquo hia 
tu non-poflunt ha? dux liters coire . Itaque farpe alpira- 
tionem interponuut diftinguendis fyllabis, vt quu pro* 
nuntiant bahu & mahumet. 

EI 

EI diphthongu hodie cumfimplici iota confundunt 
homines etiam eruditiflimi : fed errore non minus ma- 
nifefto quam periculofo,propter multiplicem vniusfo- 
ni fignificandi rationem.Contrarium autem errore Craf 
fus apud Cicerone lib.de Oratore 1 1 i,reprehedit in Sul- 
pitio,qui i literam tollebat,e pleniflimum dicebat. La- 
tinis enim hxc diphthogus olim familiaris eratjficutin- 
dicat veteres Gramatici qui de orthographia fcripferut. 
Sed paiilatim exoleuit , adeo vt nuc ne accufatiuos qui- 
de illos pluralcs omneis^cis^arteis^ fcribamus, fed ex- 



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pun&o i cum Su!pitio 9 <)icamusomnes,tres,partes.Serua* 
ta eft tamen in paucis quibufHam,vt lit hei & queis,vt de 
pocticis illis nihil dicam,Orphei Calliopea:&,Iam valid* 
Ilionei nauem,caeten(que eiufmodi.in quibus quodno- 
nulli contendunt i cffc confbnantem, faceor me nee co- 
fequi,nec probare poffe.Galli vero banc retinent in qui- 
bufdam, vt fkin, frith fencl, quibus adiungere poffemus, 
kttn,i?Min,pcun/ai?icl>1k eiufmodi plurima>in quibus e po- 
tius quam a auditur. Lemouices autem edere fblet ger- 
manum hunc fonum in extremis vocibus, vt eccei pro 
^ecce,dominei pro domine: quomodo etiam Latin s o- 
lim fuum e in quibuJHam vocibus pronuntiaffe Fabius 
tradit. 

ET 
In tv diphthogo hodie peccatur ficut in cw paulo an- 
te peccari oftendimus: quu tamen facillima fit eius pro- 
* -nuntiatiojvocalibus optime & facillime in vnum mixta 
(bnum cocuntibus , quern hodie Galli efferunt in D/>», 
&u'Jitufe*jBt aliis plurimis. Latini quoque integram re- 
tinuerunt, vt Orpheus,Peleus, quae nonnulli male ijuafi 
trifyllaba,folent enuntiare . Dicunt tamen iidem Achil- 
* les & Vlyfles,ab A^» to£\ & Ofuost t^expun&o u. 

OI 
OI diphthongo quam vulgo etiam cu iota confundufc, 
idem contigitapud Latinos quodde ** diximus,nempte 
vt i in e mutaretur, fitque ex a fa&um a, vt quum pro 
fSiCo$ & oigyoop fcribunt Phoebus & b:Jfrum,& alia eiufHc 
formae.Apud veteres tamen Comkos quoi reperitur mo 
Ho(yllabum,& quoiquam dtfTyllabum . Sed alioquin ab 
hoc (bno abhorrent Latini, vocalibus nimirum dehilce- 
tibus.Galli vero quum Grsecam fcripturam retinuerint, 
quam nonnulli appofito y deformarunt,tarme ita pronu 
tiant vt triphthongum audiamus, ficut in his vocabuKs 
liquet qua? ipfi a Graecis acceperut,vt moi,toh/hi, &}$$. 
H*c cnim & fimilia ita folent efferre vt audias o cu pri* 



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jaailladiphthongo xcoalefcen%perindeadi»f*if,f*fr 9 
/o**fcriptum cflet, idque vnica tantum fyllaba . Manfit 
omen in extremis fyllabis integra hxc diphthongus, in 
lis quidem vocabulis quae in n definunt,vtfoinJxfoinjn 
quibus verus & germanus huius diphthongi (onus au- 
ditur. Nam qui cum iota confundunt, non modo refel* 
luntur ipfa diphthongi definitione, fed Ctiam quodam 
Thucydidis loco ex libro hiftoriarum primo, ex quo &• 
pert* liquet m/m>\ & hoi/ui; diuerfe fiufle pronuntiata. 
OT 
Ov vnica ex omnibus diphthongisgermanum fiium 
(bnumrctinuit,quem tamen Latini,& alia? plcraeque gc 
tes Latinos fecutat, vnico ufignificant,ficutfupracfta 
nobis copiofius explicatum . Nunquam enim apud La- 
tinos o & u in eadem fyllaba coniunOareperias: quia a- 
pud cos vnica ilia litera u hunc.mixtum fonum valcbae. 
Haftcnus de diphthongis proprie fie vocatis: quibus to* 
tidem opponuntur quae im propria? vocantur, propterea 
quod ores illarum nunc quidem non aliter quam fimpli 
ces vocales efferuntur,in aliis vero vocales in vnam fyl- 
labam no ita coalefcunt vt in iis quae propria* cognomi 
tiantur.Nam quod quidam duas exillis,nempe »v & a* 
idcirco volunt improprias effc vocatas, quod Ionu fint 
propriaerfane probare non pouum } quum ex ipfarum na 
cura diphthongi turn propria: turn impropris dicantur* 

9 & Z 
Itaquc in * a> & <t nihil audiri nunc folct praetcr pu- 
ram terminationem u a a. Pun&um autem illud quod 
fubferibitur, i fubferiptum vocant > quia fcilicct pro i 
fcribitur , idquc infra literam a vt intelligi poffit non 
effe efferendum • Qu&d fiha?c pronuntiatio eft germa- 
na, confequetur has diphthongos dici non pronun- 
tiationis,fed fcriptionis caufa : imo vero ne fcriptionis 
quidem, quum inter literas non (bleat pundum nume- 
rari.Quamobrem ctiam in multis &impreuis & naanii 



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icriptis eodicibus memini vidcre pr«ermiffum. Cur i« 
gitur,ctices/ubfCTibitur,quum profcrri non foleattCcr- 
cc eaulam vnam effe puto quae affervi poflit , nempe vt 
partim cafus diftinguat eiufdem alioqui terminationis, 
ucut *iyy tertio calu (ingulari a xiyv dualis numcri di- 
ftinguitur: partim vt dcclaret exquibus vocalibus fit 
fa&a contra&io, ficut &*£c 8c 0mT intelligimus ex fadetc 
8c $ocIh contra&uScd ne hacc quidem caufa idonea vide- 
tur .Cur cnim ter tium cafum i/mipx diftinguas a carter is 
eiufdem tcrminationisjinter re&um autem ipl& 8c pri 
mum ac quartum cafum dualis numeri , nullum difcri- 
menconftiruastltem quarc m*** fubferibas j,quum nul 
. lu$ prxterea eius nominis obliquus in n tcrminetur? Ap 
parct igitur aut temere hanc confuctudincm fuifle vfur 
patam,quod non putoaut certe(quod arbitror)in his c- 
tiam diphthongis iota fuifle olim pronuntiatu/ed exili 
admodum fono, qui idcirco etiam euanuerit . Hoc aute 
verum effc,partim ex eo colligo quod in vetuftismultis 
codicibus etiamnum reperitur ad latus adlcriptum,mi- 
nori tamen forma 8c penc dimidiata, quae (cribendi co- 
fuctudo in Uteris maiufculis remanfit . Deinde exFabii 
authoritatc,qui libro prima de iis loquens qui i longum 
per ei lcribebant,vt puerei,mendacei,furei,Id3inquit,fu 
peruacuum cft,tum etiam incommodum aliquado . Na 
in his qua* proximam ab vltima liter am e habebunt , & 
i longa terminabuntur, illam rationem fcquentes, vtc.- 
mur e gemiha,qualia funt hax,aureei,argenteei > & firm 
fta: id quod iispraxipue qui adleftionem inftituentur, 
etiam imjpedimeto crit: ficut in Grxcis accidit adie&io* 
bc / litcr«,quam non fblum datiuis cafibus in parte vt- 
tirnaadferibunt, fed quibufdam etiam intcrponunt,vt 
**/«*i . Ex his igitur Quintiliani verbis apparet,veterc* 
non »,vt nunc fblcnt^ed w,id eft vt ipfe Fabius cxplicat. 
eeifiue ci vna fyllaba (idem enim valet c longum quod 
Ct ge»uruun)tumfcripfiflc turn pronuatiauc,ita tame* 



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vt non triphthogus eflet,cuiui apud vetcrcs nullus erat 
vfus,fed diphthongus,ex e fcilicet longo 5c i. Quam ra- 
tionem fi iequamur,dicemus etiam non a> &ct,fed *• & 
* vetcrcs fcripfifle & legiffe. Hinc autc etiam apparebit 
ratio cur impropri* fint hae diphthongi appeilata?, quia 
fcilicet in diphthongis proprie fie vocatis,vtraque vo- 
calis debet celerrima pronutiationc in vna vocem coire, 
ac prior praHertinijVt nullus hiatus audiri poflit quo fyl 
laba dirimatur. Id autem in iftis fieri non poteft, in qifi~ 
bus prior vocalis quum longa fit ^ pronuntiationem ni- 
mirum remoratur,vt pene duardiftin&a; fyllaba? audia- 
* tur,nifi pofterioris vocalis / fonum infringas.-quod qui- 
dtm idcirco diximus tanqua dimidiatum adferibi, hoc 
mbdo, H, & (li. Hums autem pofterioris exemplum 
pfaebere poflunt Itali fuu illud oi me> id eft hei mihi,mo- 
nofyllabum quidem prohuntiantes, fed ita tamen vt o 
producatur: quod etiam faciuntSabaudi,apud quosea~ 
dem ilia particula oi per o longum accipitur pro ita af- 
firmandi particular ftquc monofyllabum^pro quo Gal* 
li vfurpant oWdifTyliabum. 

Hr nr 

Sed 8c w & m cur impropria? dicantur,& quo modo 
fint enuntiada?, ex iftis fans apparere poteft,eodem mo- 
do fcilicet quo iv 8c pv qiix iftis opponuntur,ficut flpc- 
rioribus tribus H« fl« Ai oppofita?furit« oi 8c a/.ft'dc ta 
mcnihtereft,qu6d»& a in iftis,quu longa fin t ? pronu- 
tiationem itaretinent vt hiatum vitare non pofils. Eorft 
autem error em qui v in iftis diphthongis cum u cOnjo- 
nante vel <p confuiadant,paulo ante refutauimtb. 

TI " 

XI valet ui,no i vt vuigo folet en^e,vt*>ro«,id eft 

harpuiafnon harp&Huius exemplum eft apud Latinos, 

cui,tertio cafu.-in quo tamen nonn\iili etiam ex veteri- 

bus vohint i efle confbnantem:ied quibus non fatis pof- 

{ fum coniicere qibd in mentem vencrit, quum i iodioc 



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^oeabulo non aliud ccrte fonet, quam in quis Sc fimiH- 
bu*£icui tarn en hoc excmplum non placuerit, hxc Gal* 
lica iibi proporm,/W^«/,/w/,quxfunt monofyllaba, & 
hanc diphthongum optime dec brant. Cxterum cur in* 
tcr improprias diphthogos hxc numerctur,quu prxfer- 
nm hx dux vocalcs,paritcr fcilicet exiles,meliusetia in- 
ter (V coalcfcant quam a*, vci «&, vel «, non memini lc- 
gere a Grammaticis explicatum.Eft autcm caufi a fupe* 
rioribus prorfus diuerfa.ln illis enim prior vocalis pro* 
du&a & pent Tola audkur,vt oftendimus:in hac vero vo 
calls pofterior,id eft ii i> femper circunflc&kur.Idcirco 
multo clarius & melius intelUgitur, quam t/:quu in pro- 
pria diphthongo Tonus quidam xquis partibus exvtra- 
que vocali temperatus exaudiatur.Scribit autem Athe* 
nacus banc diphthongum interdum per v folum vetcres 
fcriberc confueuifle:cx quo fa&um opinor vt Latini ii j 
interdum cxpuxermt, vt mufca,harpy a a wa&ipisryct* 
Scd nobis vera fcripcura ac pronuntiatio Grxcarum vo«* 
cumferuandaeft. 

DI ACCENflBVf. 

Slcutprofodiarum, id eft (vt Fabius ad verbum inter- 
pretatur ) accentuum maxima eft in pronuntiando 
vtilitas^fi quidem rede vfurpentur, quamobrem etiam 
ab HebrxisGuftus traf latitie vocatur jita nihil xque pro* 
nuntiationem corrumpit atque peruerfus earum vfiisy 
de quo paucis mihi putaui aliquid dicendu.Itaque quodt 
ad tonos pertinet(qup vocabulo eriam pro in undone va 
cis vtitur Demofthenes in oratione <cfei stftlfv) quum 
repertos efle conftetnon vt longitudinem,fed vtaltinn* 
dinem^quabiUtatem,dcprcfliopeirj, circundu Aionem 
fyUabarummerianm^manifeftusefteorumxtrDr qui 
turn alia fpecie accentuum,id eft cum temppribus corP 
fiindunt,ita vt quarcunque acuenda vel £ le&enda.cfbfyte 

E.i. 



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!aba>tam producant:qu*cuhquc dcprimendivelsqauH 
biliter ft owntiand&caro corripiar.Ex quo fitvtkiGajr* 
^ oration v«l©*lluro*Y«l ptarfos corruptuin nuraeri 

xu#* \#i^*<wv?wfmi tvtpcnc prapftitcrk Graxayd 
LatwaQ»l%CfCjqi»iit*f«cte dcpranarc. Idaute^uim 
vcr § dicWs |*>*er k e* Cr*cor u piafertira cxemplia ap* 
paj*re> apifcdqtHM pej&ullimflt quantitas fepc ah acuta tp 
n^diftrcpat, ctiam qvum longa eft, contra quam apud 
latinos. Age ig*tur,p*tmum HomcrivcrficuHiitapro-r 
IMWmSYlVUlgofQl«lti ^ ^ v _ 

Mimn a. tie thea piltiadeo achilios, 
*t Ate faago nihil dicam quatuor k>cis,fumma com e%* 
ccUctiiTimi&nttmeroiilllmi Pocnciniuria, in I tenui£ 
{imam vocalenx nuitaf o,quis vcrium herokum eflc fen- 
tiet, iaquo ncque Spondeum, neque Da&ylum au«Rast 
Sequentem autem vcrfum mukomk\us etiam pcrciptas, 
quianon in Spondeum, fedinDa&ylum<adet.Sk «*im 
pronuntiant, 

oulomenin hi myri achxis algc cthiccn 
Age verb cum his Gfaecisduos ctiam primos AEneidiw 
vcrms^omponamus, inquibu* ingeniofiffimus Poctt 
tanto ftudio eft Homerum imitatus, vt (fi vnujn pedem 
exciptas > in quo etiam fbnorem vocaK'um concurfum 
voluit arnmkri) lemgas lbtigts & breues breuibus oppo^ 
fiiertt: quod baud fck» an a quoqttamfit aniniaduermm, 
quum tamen (nifallor) cadi id'&fttttat vidcri QOh poflit. 
Sie ergo pucriin iudis Beet arft* hocfie dpecntur pronuh- 
tiare>aut podu» ineptiffime eantare. 

i«na 4 vifumqu* cind Trola* qut pnmtts a*b 8A 
* xatfam fitfS prSfilg&s, Liuiituque venit 
Hacautem ineptiffima pronuntiatione quis non ftntiat 
ghuuffimos horura vcrfuunumcros icafragi, vt,fi duW 



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vltimos pedes excipiasjverfus vkfcri non poffint. contra 
vero£ ita vt par eft pronuntiaris, 

Ar ma yini que cano Troiae <J. pri mus ab oris 

I'ta li atti fa , to pro fugus La ui nao^c venit. 
Si hoc inquatfimodo pronuntiaris feruata iyllabarum 
quantitatc, ctiam vt vcrfus non digcras in pcdcs,quis ta 
tnen ocpmv & tin* ho audiat, & fuauiflirna horum verfuu 
gfaukatc non capiatur ? Ccrte non minus vithim eft ir- 
5>»«rperiuJtimatrcui,aut o vho/jutyUu penultima loga Grf 
ci efffcrfe,quam fi Latine dic*s docere& legcr£,ita vt ixf. 
illo £)acYylus,in hoc Am'phibracUus audiatur, & tamen 
ita prbnXifitiare confueuimus^ajuyerbin Iambicis ver* 
fibus j>r*fertiicn Latihis, quis Iarnbum vllum pcrcipiatt 
cuius amen pedis repetitiohc tota coram veriiium ve^ 
Siuitas cohftat.Solent enim pardagogi vulgoitafuos eru 
dif6,Vt in omnibus diflyllabis penultimam pioducantj 
lutfue^ierecitant hunc Catulli verfum, /.*. r ' ., x 

' C^shScpote^ftvider^quispptcftprtu 
fcgo Vcr6 putidam iftarn pronuritiationcm miror QPf- 
quam effepofle qui poffit aucuVe/qui poffit pari J#f£ayj 
fern liic error legendis verfibus facilius percipmfonuii* 
lo tamen eft minor in orationc lbluta : 4c culus,nume- 
rofa cofnpofitionc fruftra apud GraVcos AriftoteIes,Dia 
hyflus & alii do&itfimi homines/ruftra Cicero $c Fajbi* 
apud latinos pr aecepcru nt , fi fqnos, cum Tempor it^us 
confundamus . Quid igitur?djces. Nempcjhoc poftyjo^ 
aut ratio potius ipfa f lagjtat , ytacuatur fviUba,CuitCH 
nus acutus imponitur:a?quabili autdepreflipi[cfbnoprfl[ 
feratur qua: graucm habet: partim acuantwy partim 4er 
primantur quarfignantur circunflexo:fcd ita vt(quemad 
modum Mufici (olent in fuo iIJq qyinque lincaruro dia 
grammate 3 & nos quoque in verr^aculo noftro fermonc) 
fob? longx fyllaba? producantur, folx breucs corripian- 

E.ii. 



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tur, fi»c tolU j fiuc dcprimi, vel aequabiliter pronuntiari 
oportucrit.Tonorum cnim & temporum quum diuerk 
fint ofFicia,diuerfum mioque vfum efle par eft.Ncque ta 
men nego,breui fyllabae tcmporis aliquidaccedere qua- 
do acuto fono fignatur , quantum fcilicet necefle eft in 
acuenda fyllaba confumi. Jed vt minus fit brcuis quam 
antea,minime tamen confequiturhabendam pro longa* 
ficut ab iis haberi folec qui Malus arborem a Malus adie 
friuonon diftinguunt: & Pominus perinde prbnuntia* 
acfi Dadrylus eflet,pr6Tribracho. Item vt longa fyllaba 
rion aeuatur, tamen longa efle non definitrquod no ob- 
Fcruant qui ex ?fyx*y Da&ylum conftituunt.Rurfwn vc 
r6 quanuis quxcunquc fyllaba circunfle&itur,ca etiam 
natura longa fit, quia tamen mults funt fyilabx natura 
longa? qux non circunfleEcuntur, Tonus circunflexus a 
tempore lohgo fie diftinjgui debet, vt ille quidem altitu- 
dinem tc depretfionem,id eft circundu£rionem,hoc ve- 
rt* lorigirtfdinem folam metiatur,id eft vt circufjexa fyl 
laba itaproducatur,vt fimul initio acuatur,4einde fai-r 
fim deprimatunficut facere folent Mufici 3 quum vni fyl 
labae duas qUas vocant breues , vnam altiorem, alteram 
deptefliorcm tribuunt: carter x vero longx,fi quide.m a- 
ctip> : fienata? fuerint,tantum acuanror: finautem graui, 
xqtiaSiliter producantur. At enim,dices,ifta funt perdif 
ncHia 5 &fortaifis etiam i^wcL-m y \is quidem qui diucrf* 
fcrotiuntiationi aflheucruht.Id ego ver6 fateor,& in me- 
apfo non inuitus agnofco . Sed nihil vetat rcftam viam 
altis oftenderc, ctiam vt illam ingredi non poflls . Certi 
Veritas mifirdiffimulanda non fuit,vt paulatim meliora 
pr6bir<r& fequi condifcamus.Ergo, vt libere dica quod 
fcritio , vcf Tonos prorfus fublatos effe velim tantifper 
dam deprattara ilia pronuntiatio Tonbrum pro tempo- 
rlbuscmehdctur(qutrm prarfertim vcteres conftet iftos 
aprce's in fcribendo non vfurpaflc) vel nullam eorum ra 
iiohem haberi . Cuperem autem in corum locum alter u 



Digiti 



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ts TcmporibusmtribusiUisinciphicbus d i u,fuU& 
tui,& diligenter annotari. Hoc ego,inquam,vt fiat Gia- 
deo,quod nullam aliam verae reftituendae pronnntiaao* 
pis rationem habcam aut mcHorcm^aut promptiorems 
paratus umen de fcntcntia mca dcccdcre, fiquis ceftio* 
radocuerit. 

; ;--t e m ? o r a duo cffc diximuj.Scd ex iis alteriitro ta-« 
, turn egemus. Rurfus autenr fyllaba quae natura loga eft, 
ao ca diftingui debet quae fola pofitione longa exifttMd 
f ft idcirco tantum quod duabus confonantibusadmn-i 
&a u>,quibus pronuntiandis necefle eft moram interpo) 
ni^vt in Wzftiwr produ&ior eft penultima quinxin W«?t-* 
^.Praetcrea pro qualitate coofonantium quae vocalcs 
ipfas praecedurit vel confequu«tur>inter longas aliaeatiis 
longiores, inter breues ajiae aUis Jbreuiores repcriuntur. 
Sed haec fubtilius perfequi 3 noftri non eft inftituti • Ad-» 
pioncri tamenpueri debeiJt&anue£cri,v» haec omnia 
difcrimina expedite obferuenj * fine quorumcogwtio-i 
ne & vfu fieri no poffc puto vt do ntimeris oratiojtyh re- 
ft* iudiccnt,& magno cum fru&u (He ad virwtcs alto- 
rum imitandas componant* Tantieft momenti ifta noa 
neglexifle,quibus alioquin nihil abie&ius videri poflit. 
s p I r i T v* v m quoqucaltcmter videtur abundare. 
quamobrem etiam apud Latino* fokis denfus fignatur, 
qucm afpirationem vocant v <^aAi feritus ace rfliflnfm * 
Itaquc quod in tribus illis afpiratis Uteris diximus,iteru 
eft nobis repetendum,eos mihi quidem videri non fatis 
refte facere, qui pro afpirato vel defo fpiritu afperu,pro 
tenui vel lenemvel laeuc fpiritu <licunt.Neque cnim rc- 
perti funt fpiritus vel afperitati vel lenitati, fiue ( vt alii 
volunt) lasuitati literarum fignificadae: (cd vt latituding 
pronutiationis declarent, qua? quidem vel a copiofo vel 
a raro fpiritu proficifcitur.Id autc vel ex eo liquet,qu6d 
hare profodia vocalibus eft dicata,ctiam quando afpira- 
•is Uteris adiungitur^nempc <p ^ 6 frvt nonnulli volut. 

E.iii. 



Digiti 



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Vctt&s*tttcm nii^ttctffpft^nequc fenet Aki poffunt, 
W l^liba^cifcaruin^onfonantium natura, qttt* vocali 
a AttngWBto rJDcnfaecafliqi did p&fTune,qUAiidofaiicet 
notnraiipo &fo' tcntriffimofpiritu non c6iwc«ft*,a}iftta 
ex*in£xroacccribiu:>tiamquodAm modwttitttuttfc 
fpiritus duplicctur.Qupd fi mihi diuinare lidCl,httiiis et 
roricdapick fait oicafio.Vna>qu&d afper ab afpirato ho 
^uitdmndtarur^flfckTtyiinornina potiiu qttfen ttiA 
ipfim confidents? vr plan* fitprobabife nSwiMofcifta pa 
ronomafiafoifle detepios . Altera qu&d pro kid fpirim 
Mjnmli tenon vd laetxem legerant,quod; vtr&que afpc- 
ro opponitur.Ego v*nb e* iftimo eo$ qui wnuem fpiritfi 
primi feuem vocarfit* etuis narurakti exprimere voluifle* 
Haqtwt^uwt funt^d eft temna & exUia, iila quo<^e le- 
uiaiuwetjficut etomta^io quit (tint <&**, id eft dtftia & 
craia,iiU quequeneedfe e# rt grauia txiftaftt.Hrtc an 
ecm ad afptri tatcm vd knfeatemfeul&aittcem, aut(vt 
Bonmilli loquuntur)iaaiigatk)ncm &ni nihil pertinents 
• : Superfine retiqu* not* quas cur a Profodiu diftin- 
xerimus,m ipfa ofttndit% 1 Qtt6d autetn quafda addtde^ 
rimus quas vuig6 ndn ibieht Grammatici reeenfere > ac 
cat pratfemm quiburVturitof Graci in Periodorum di- 
ftina^hc^ettiOjVf t)finor,repf eh^ndtt, qui aon mod* 
vtitifilmam/ed etiam phtfseneecflanam tfle iliarum c* 
gwumem non igtior aaettt^ed dt hit hafteaut. 



f r. 



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OX* ffiNuujtpofyv t£ Sct#5o7i9u^9t;. 

Qvk3uZ*$ Ajk|*i TV QtoSxwcw (wdu** 
TaZm /uuct cr?J<^;-w 3 9«/TC£^ wfcAir. 

Decern prscepta Dei per Mofem data, ex Ni«ef>kori XanthopuU 
fcriptit. , 

£ex tabulis fcripta decern verbis, 
Pominus vnus eft Ifrael Dcus folus. 
Idolum nullum conficics omnino. 
Ncque fumes Dei nomen in vanum. 
Mcmoriam celebra diei fabbathorum. 
Patrcm honora tuum atque matrcm. 

H»c vna tabula eft: altera deinccps. 
Minime nuptias adulterlo inquinato. 
Sed nequc fureris palam,clandeftine. 
Kec occidas cxcandcfcens ira propinquum tuum. 
Falfumque lonee amouc testimonium. 
Hemic concupifcas liquid propinquo charum* 

Has tabulii infculpfit Dcus,leges. 

Digitized byCjOOQlC 



Digitized by VjOOQLC 



Si utfi <u.mi 



abecum 
Gracum. 





A^TVERPIAE^ 

£x oificina Chriftophori Piantiai. 
M. d< lxvl 




^?^^3^ 



d by Google 



LITERAE APVD 

VIGINTI QVATVOR 

Appellatio Pronuntiatio E 

na,vt nos quidcm arbitramur. 

Alpha A a 
Beta, vui g 6 vita B b 
Gamma Gg*?S£" 
Delta D d 

Epfilo.i.tcnu»E e&cuc. 
Seta, ££DS 
Eta, ^ £ elongum 

Thecal. Th 



Figura 

A a, 

B/36 

TyT 

AM 
E« 

zee 

H» 

i / 

K* 
A A 
U/x 

Nr 

2? 
O o 

n <w w 



AA<ptf 
Biria 
Tciju/jut 

bkfcm 

Hto 
lam 



Iota 
Cappa 



I 1 vocale 

^ quefono. 



Aa/uGJk Lambda 

MS My 

Nff Ny 

27 . Xi ■" ^. 

O fjuTtplv O micro j^ 6 O o 

nr Pi P p 

P» Rho Rr 



LI 
M m 
Nn 
Cs, vci Gs 

breuc 



d by Google 



GRiECOS SVNT 

Q^VARVM HiEC EST 



Pronuntiatio vulgata, 

quam corruptam eriftimamus. 



Etymologia 

catHcbraeofcrmonc. 

Alcph 

V con(bnaiis,id eft Digama AEolicum. Beth 

I confonans,fcqucntc *,vel #,ircl •, vcl «,yc1 *t 3 ^ {trial 
vcl *, vcl if. Eadcm yt n,fcqucntc *,vcl #, vcl ^f U1 ™~* 

y.veifc Dalcth 

Elongum,fi acuta* acccntUsfuoit impofitus, 

2, id eft infra&o fono s, Tfadi 

I longum, (i accentum acuram habucrit: brcuc, Heth 

(igcauem. 
Tapudindo&os. 



G>pr«ccdcntc y# 



O longum, fi accentttm acutum habtierit. 



Thcth 

Iod 

Caph 

Lamed 

Mem 

Nun 

Pe 
Res 



A x 



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Figura Apjwllatiq Prontintiatio *£ 

oa^vtnos^uidemarbitnunur* 

2<r« "Sayfxet Sigtha S f S 

Tt ... Tcuj Tau,vui g 6Taf. T 4 t 

T V T^tiv rpfll5.i.tenuc V U ^Sfc* 

Galli pronuntiatt^Gcrmani u Gallicum vocant* 

*<j» *? Phi Ffiucph 

X v XT Chi Gh 

* 4 ■',;-■«• PC Pf,vcrBs 

li a» ' fl^ej<* Omega. Olongura. 

id eft magnum. 



d b» Google 



Pronuntiatiovulgatai Etymologia 

S infta&ofono,quum inter duasconfonan- Samech 

D,prarccdcnu? ,. Tail* 

1 



Q fceue/juando fjguatur graui. 



Phe, id 

eftPcfin$dagh&. 



A3 



d by Google 



Diuifio literarum? 

Ex his x x 1 1 1 1 Uteris , Vocales funt 
feptem, id eft quae per fe pofTunt plenam 
vocem edere, am sou *. 

Longse, n a 

Breuestotidem, «o 

Ancipites tres, a / u> id eft in quibuf- 
dam vocabulis longx, in quibufdam bre- 
ues,in paucis indifrcrentes. 

Reliquse literae vocem non edunt, 
ideoque a Platone in Cratylo & There- 
to generali vocabulo *<pa>vcL vocantur, id 
eft vocis expertes : a Grammaticis vero 
ov/uQcova, id eft Confbnantes , quod cum 
vocalibus adiun&is fqnos fuos communir 
cent. Sunt autem numero x v 1 1, j3 y «F 

Ex quibus funt 
vfjutpovtt, id eft Semiuocales o&o, fie di- 
&ae,quod,vt nullas habeant vocales ad- 
iun£hs,'quandam tamenftrepitus&fbni 
fpeciemedant^ g 4 A A 6 v p *• 
Ex his funt 
A/TrAa^ideftDupIicestres/quod dua- 
rum literarum fint compendia^ g 4- 

T^a,id eft Liquids quatuor/quod ita 

fint lubrice,vt quafi liquefcant in pronun 

tiando, A /a v jp. Easdem etiam dfjarct&o?\» 

• dicun r 

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dicuntur,id eft Imrautabilcs,qu6d in for 
jnationibus cafuum vel temporum non 
jnutentur. 

Mor^A^idcftfolitarium^vnum er. 

Cetera nouem appellantur d<pwct> id 
eft Muta?, quod per fe ncquc voceni , vt 
Vocales : qeque ilrepi turn edant,vtSemi- 
Uocales, $ y $ %<t& <t • Q y. 
Exhisaucem 

*vA*, id eft Tenues tres funt,exilifcili- 
cet & tenui fono contents, <o-xt. 

A*crta,,i& eft Denfe totidem a fiiperia* 
ribus procreata?,adiun£ta afpirationerquo 
fit vt tenuibus,non afperiores quidem,vt 
vulgoputant,fed denfiores fint,&quafi 
pinguiores, <p % Q. « 

lyf %<m> id eft Mediae cuiufdam inter te- 
nues &afpiratas nature /3 y <P. 

Opponuntur autem inter fe, & alias in 
alias fepe tranfeunt,ideoque dvrig-oi^id 
eft liters inter feoppofitaz vocantqr : cu- 
ius oppoflcionis haec eft defer ip no, 

Tenues Medix Afpirata: 
it j8 $ 

'; ' i $ 

A 4 DE 



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DE SYLLABIS. 

Ex his Uteris conftituuntur fyllabar. 
£yllabam autem vocamus, docendi cau* 
iz 3 ipiritus comprehenfionem ad vnam 
voceni exprimendam.Eftautemin triply 
ci differentia. Conftat enim velex vna vo- 
cali,vel exduabus vocalibus in mixtam 
vnam voce coeuncibus,velex confonante 
vna vel pluribuscum vna vocali, aut dua- 
bus adfummum. 

Primi generis fyllabas quinque funt,' 
quot fplicet vocalium foni. Nam w, & « 
non voce, fed vocis quantitate difFerunc 
?b e & o. 

Secundigeneris,Biphthongi,id eft ge- 
minif#n# appellantur, quod ex duabus 
vocibus tertiam vnam cfficientibuscom- 
ponantur. Eseveroproprie numetantur 
tantiim fe£,quibus totidem alia* adiiciun- 
turimproprie fie vocatse, quia vel vt fim- 
pliccs vocales efFeruntur 5 vel compofitam 
quidem vocem edunt,{ed tardius tamen 
coalefcentem : vt pene videri poffint dua: 
primi generis fyllabae, ficut ex hoc dia- 
grammatc apparet . Hsc eft igitur fylla- 
^arum Diphthongorum. 

Pro- 
V 



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Propriaram 
Figura Pronuntiacio^: Vfitata&^S* 

na^vtcxiftimaniuSjVno ipi- tiatio. 

ritu&tcnore. 

«/ ai c r vel i* 

af.velauper u 
«" aU confonans. 

6i Ci * vpcalc. 

^6 CU cl>eleupcrip 

confonans. 
Oi Ol ivocalc. 

CU OU . 

Impropriarunh 
^velAi ai a 
*f vel KJ civele* i vocals 
j^velfl 1 6i 6 

W CU if, yd toper* 

confonans 
&>(/ Ol| of,vclou per 11 

u 111 ^ confonans. 

" ivocale. 

Tcrtij generis fyllabxex cofonantium 
&yocalium multipliciconnexione pen£ 
funtinfinit?,quas enumerare minipae nc- 
ceffe eft. Qjaafdam tamen rcgiilas & de- 
fcriptipnes commenti fumus, quibus puc 
xi ad quarundam cpnftitupopem intelli- 
gendam adiuuentur. 

Prima regula. 

Omnis /Implex confonans inter duas 

yocales pofita in vna di&ione vel diuer- 

iis,per apoftrophon tamen coniundis^ad 

A j fcquen- 



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fequentcm vocalcm pctiitiet.vt'mi\rnp, 
non tot| it/>.Itcm k*\ &i\ m*jw non *&&{ n\ 
fApctv. 

Si occurrerint dus iun€tx confonan- 
tes, quando ad vnam fyllabam , quando 
ad diuerfas pertineant, ex his regulis & 
defcriptionibus cognofces. 
Secunda. 

Hx tantiim Semiuocalcs in vnam fyl 
labam confpirant, /a, cr/*, pratprea Ac, v<;, 
p<; , fed in extremis tantiim di&iqnibu* 
yfq ; perpaucis. • 

Tertia. 

Ex Mutis has tantiim coniugationcs 
reperiuntur. 

"}- * $»• 

Quarta. 
Ex Semiuqcalibus & Mutis hx tan- 
tiim in vnam fyllabam coalefcunt: A om- 
nibus Mutis fubie<9:um,prater <P: 

K ? X ? 

T>^. Item >fjt, } fed in mediis tantiim 

A3 ©j di&ionibus. 

Item 



d by Google 



r C v. Item <p* , fed nunquam initio 

Ay di&ionis. 

X 

0- 

p omnibus Mutis fubiicitur. 

& pmerquam qudd includiturtribus il- 
lis Uteris duplicibus, etiam preponitur 
omnibus Mutis praeter y>&c (blum coit 
cum duabus confbnantibus , nempe 

*7>vts-e?l<P* 

D E ACCENTIBVS. 

Prpfbdiae, id eft Accentus , propuntja- 
tioni mirifice conducunt. Sunt autem 
apudGrecosnumero feptem,exquibus 

t o n i tres funt, nempe Acutus, Gra- 
uis, Circunflexus : quibus vocis altitudi- 
nem,fiue,vt Grxciyocant,Toyoy,id eftin- 
tentionem metimur. Sied intentionis no- 
mine Grammatici etiam quod illi oppo- 
fitum eft,ideftacquabilitate& remiflio- 
nem vocis, ipfamqucadeo circundu&io- 
nem comprehendunt. 

Ex hisigitur 

Acutus acuendam & attollendam vo- 

cem 

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ccm fignificat, vocali impofitus, figura c*- 
dentis re&# lineole/ed ita vt in finiftrum 
latus vergac ' vt &%b<;. 

Grauis depreflionem. aut sequabilita- 
tem vocis declarat, eadcm linea in con- 
trarium latus propcndentc N vt n/di. 

Circunflexusmonetfle&endatn &ck 
cunducendanj vpcemrquod fitfi fenfim 
attollas,deinde deprimas. Itaque figuram 
habetex Acuto& Grauiconiun&iscon- 
flatam, hoc modo ~ , vcl ex inuerfbypfilo 
a> qua* nota poftea in iftam dcgencrauit * , 

Vt TJDtcS* 

tempora funt duo, quae vocalis 
pronuntiandse longicudinem declarant, 
vcl breuitatem . Ex ijs,longum porre&a 
longa linea", breue quafi ypfili nota u 
pingitur ? 

s piritvs duo fie appellati quod 
fignificen^quse Vocalcs in quibus di&io- 
nibus naturali fuo fpiritu,id cfl: tcnui fine 
content*: item qua: denfiorem fpirituia 
£Xtrinfecus affumant. 

Ex his igitur 

Denfus in maiufculis Uteris pingitur 
H dimidio/vt' y A7J7o/Mra:in minoribus,di- 
jnidio circulo % vt *wfofxcu y prrmp.* 

Tenuis fignatur akero dimidio H, vt 

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AVo5. # veIhcmicyclo%vt huroq. 
Loci acccntuum. 

Nulliolim accentus fignabantur, ficut 
ex vctuftis codicibus apparct. Nunc au- 
tcm Acutus fignatur vel in antepenulti- 
ma , vt Ttvetos : vel penulcima, vt dxovo*: 
vel vltima , vt 3*6$ ; vnde, fadum eft vt 
di&iones vocentur a Grammaticis propa- 
roxy ton«e,paroxy tonse, vel oxy tonae,id eft 
anrepenacutx, penacutae,vel acuta?* 

Grauem imponi quidem oportuit om 
nibus fyllabis qua? neque acuuntur,ne- 
que Circumfte&untur : fed ne tanta ac- 
centuum multitudo le&ionem impedi- 
ret,vfus obtinuit vt infbla vltima figne- 
tur,idque in Us tantum duftionibus^qua:, 
quum natura fint oxytonse, in contextu 
orationis ponuntur, vt w dper* top diov rip- 
vret. Ab hoc accetu di&io dicitur fiapuvo- 
/u&vfiy id eft ad verbum,gtauata. 

Circunflexus infcribitur vel penulti- 
mx vt Goxre, vel vltima vt 60a, a quo di~ 
diones vocantur properifpomense , vel 
perifpomen2B,id eft penultima, vel vlti- 
ma circunflexse. 

Temporum nullus eft vfus in s & 0, re* 
pertis fi 8c eo. In ancipitibus autcni a 1 u, 
negliguntur maximo cum incommodo, 

inueSis 



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inue&is in eorum locum tonis, iicut in 
Scholiis copiole oftendimus. 
; Spiritus imponuntur Vocalibus omni- 
bussed initio tantum didionis.In confo- 
nantibus aucem nulluseft illorum vfus: 
omnes enimfuofpintu naturali conten- 
ts Tunc . Excipiuntur tantum quatuoty 
7r*r8c p, quae denfiore aiiquando Spiri- 
tuefferuntur. Sed ex illis tres prima: fuos 
habent peculiares chara&eres. Ipfum au- 
tcm p quum di&ionem inchoat,denfo fpi 
ritu iemperfignaturyVtpa^ii) : in medio 
verd non item,vt pga/tjyUyjcLpaxriip. Si ta- 
men geminetur,priori fpiritus tenuis, po- 
fteriori denfus inferibi fblet , vt applw. 
Di&io igitur denlb fpiritu notata,dicitur 
a Grxcis Jkmjtuo/uivyi.xd eft denlata^cui op 
ponitur ^i^ov/uLm,id eft tenuata. 

DE CETERIS KOTIS Q_V A B 

partim inferibi , partira fubferibi, par-? 
< tim adferibi folent. 

Pinguntur 8c alias notse , quarum ma- 
xim us eft vfus & iiecefTaria cognitio, 
quanuis inter Profbdias non debeant nu* 
merari. Exiis 

iNscRiBVNTVR dua?, Apoftro- 
phus & Dialyfis. 

Apo- 

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AppftrophuSi 14 ^ft auerfio , Vocalium 
elifionem oftendic : & infcribitur adlacus 
liters eadem forma , qua tenuis fpiritus: 
idijueplerimqpe inline, vt mp ijwot7,pro 
Trctpaipov. interdupi in initio, vt^ ytSi, 
pro cSdyt&i: & in medio vnius di&ionis 
ex duabus compofitse,vt fgvp y>v$io to fy- 
y>v.7idya>pro wj iyco. Habet aucem hanc 
vim vc pracedentem confonantem cui 
adhseret , fi tenuis fit,& proxime confer 
quatur fpiritus denfus , mutet inafpira- 
tam uvrisDi%y> vt j^y fuApctVi pro^t tyut- 
pav . ldque eciam in duabus confonanti- 
bus coniun&is accidit, vt vv%$ o>Jw , pro 

VVK& thJw. 

Dialyfis,id eft Diflblutio,duabus voca- 
libus diftin&e pronuntiandis imponitur, 
duplici pun&o fignata, vt aciJioc,, ictxa&ot;, 
\<2dmi<;, tetrafyllaba : lHaovq trifyllabum. 

svbscribitvr vna,quam v<ph qua- 
fi Subunionem vocant , qudd duo voca- 
bula fignificet in vnum coaluifle . pingi- 
turque duabus in longum porre&is line- 
olis medio quafi ypfiloconiun&is^, vt jue- 
O^HfApctV) pro jiaS ' tifApav. 

ad scribvntvr quinque, nempe 

A/asrAw,id eft Difparatio, tenuis fpiri- 
tus figura, ad imam literam, idque intra 

ipfum 

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ipfiim vocabulum,vt tyiirtn 8 9 n retetiiitf 
fcribdad vitandam hoftioiiymiam Con- 
iunftionis Sfn. 

27ii/>t» TtAwa , id eflf Pun&um perfo 
&um,quo aJffrhum vltimaj liters appofi-> 
to v terminantura Gratis & Latinis pe- 
riod! vt fignificetur , per fe&a iam fenten- 
tia,quiefcendum. 

l-nytw (Aw, id eftPufr&um medium, 
quoterminantur orationis membfiquas 
Graci x&Tig vocant Medium autcm va- 
catur, cum quia in media periodo & me- 
diae literal precedent! adfcribitur, turn 
etiam quod mediocriter quiefcendum 
effe admemeat, nondum fcilicet perfe&a 
orationis ambitu. Latini minus propria 
id fignificaht vnopuri&qaiteriimpofito* 
hacfigura: 

TOTSty/0),(iuc \hsD Jlfa9?A«,id eft Subdi- 
> J|in&io,qua diftinguuntur oratioiiisCom 
mam, quae a Latinis India nominantur* 
Adfcnbiturautem eadem notaqua Dia- 
ftole,(ed diuerfb fitu,vltiiroe fcilicet Com 
maris liters declaratque non tam quief- 
cendum quam refpirandum. Sed a plefi£ 
que Typdgraphis hodie hxC hota etiam 
Colis diftinguendis adhibetur. 
Har um aticem trium quibus periodo* 

metimur 



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tnetimujr exemplum hocefto ex Detno* 
fthene, 

JjgmXca <n\n.moX$ K3j <&&&* v/utv'To&zwrlw 
vrsrap^aji ftp i pap v/uiSv^ rovtov) r dy covet. 

E7np£0Tti<Ti$,idc;ft Interrogationis fig* 
num ^quodapud Gtxcos pingitui\tenuis 
ipiritus riota pu&o fubfbripta hoc modo $ 
Parenthefis fignum neq^in Grxcis neq$ 
in Latinis codicibus vctuftis reperias: fed 
quae inceriiquntur , ea folent adhibica v-* 
trinque hy poftigme diftingui, 
Solet etiam lis euxTtxytK&qjd eft , vt La* 
tini Grarotpatici loquuncur , materialiter 
accipi^nturjinea imponi, vt * o rb U%$q<;. 
Idque etiam vfurpatur ad ea diftinguen^ 
tlaquae & appellatiua &c propria ftomina 
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DECEM PRiECEPTA DEI 

per Mofem data,ex Nicephori 

Xanthopuli fcripcis. 

Lex cabulis fcripta decern verbis. 
Dominus vnus eftlfrael deus folus. 
Idolum nullum confides omnino. 
Neq ; {iimes Dei nomen in vanum. 
Memoriam celebra diei fabbatho- 

rum. 
Pattern honora tuum atq } matrem. 

Haec vna tabula eft : altera de- 
inceps. 
Minime nuptias adulterio inqui- 

nato. 
Sedneqj fureris palam,clandeftine. 
Nee occidas excandefcens ira pro- 

pinquum tuum. 
Falfumqjlongeamoue teftimoniu. 
Neque concupifcas liquid propin- 

quo charum. 
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"■ 13 . U, G-. 

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ALPHABETUM 

GRAECUM 

Cum Oratione Dominic alt > Saluta- 
tione Angelica 5 Symbolo Fideiy N 
t$¥raeceftis Decalogi . 




ROMAE MDCCLXXI. 
Typis Sac. Congregations de Propag. Fide . 

Traefidum facilitate. 



Digitized by VjOOQlC 



Digitized by VjOOQLC 



LECTORI 
fclAEAAHNI 

IOHANNES CHRISTOPHORUS AMADUTlUS 

Praefes Typographiac Sacrac Congregationis 
dc Propaganda Fide. 

TT^V Efecerant* iam excmplaria omnia Graeci 
m 1 *Alpbabeti , quod & Typograpbis ad 
JL^J norniam proponi folet > & a curiofis 
qutneiiam, ac Tolyglotticae facultatis amatoribus 
conquiri confuevit , ut variarum Linguarum cha- 
ra&eres fimul iun&os , eorumque quafi ftriem fpe- 
ciminis ergo inpromptu , ac fub oculis facile ha- 
beant . Quare ne Titter cetera aliarum exoticarum 
Linguarum Mpbabeta , quibus fulta eft Celebris 
haec Sacrae Congr.da Tropag.Fide Typographia, qui- 
bufque dloquatur gentes omnes longinquas , ac per 
eas Chriftianae B^ligionis praeconia late circumferat, 
Craecum deeffet , etfi notijjimum cunttis , neve per 
eius defiderium feries ceterorum Cbarafferum ab- 
rumperetur , aut imperfecta maneret , e re duxi- 
mus Graecum Mpbabetum modorecuiere , odditis^ 
quae in veteri Editione babebantur , primioribus 
Linguae Bydimentis y quae circa poteftatem funt 
Litteraxum , circa Vocales , Dipbthongos , earum* 
que five propriarum^five impropriarum potefta- 
tem , turn circa jfecentus ; quibus etiam omnibus 
nos nonnulla breviter deSpiritibus addi curavi- 
mas : quandoquidem omittenda baud videbantur . 
Infhper plures etiam Litterarmn nexus , quibu§ 

A a dita* 



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4 

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dicitur , ut jlrtis VQcabulis utamur [ fiquidem 
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pograpbia , nimirum Tefto , Sopirafilvio , Anti- 
co , Filofofia , Garamoncino } hclc nunc ad- 
duxlmus , turn & eorum explicationcm e regio* 
ne appofuimus . Tandem exercitationis ergo , & 
Tironum gratia ea baud praetermittenda duximus, 
quibus Opufculum hoc ty veteri Editione claudeba- 
tur , fcilket Oratio Dominicalis , Salutatio Ange- 
lica, Symbolumjipo^olorum, acTraeceptaDeca- 
logi , quorum fingula Graeco fermone , Graecifque 
typis expreffa funt . Qui plura defiderabit , adeat 
Grammaticas Inftitutiones , inter quas (quae fine 
plurimac funt) memorabimus Compendiariam , 
& facilem ad LinguamGraecamManuduftio- 
nem, quae ex bac ipfa Typograpbia prod¥it\anno 
MDcxcn., , dum eius Traejes ejfet Vir CL Francifcus 
1%j%arius , cuius quidem opera per aUas etiam cen* 
femus cunftas additimes\ quibus ditata ettfe- 
cundis curis prima buius Manudu&ionis Editio, 
quae iam in luccm emerferat annotADpixxxj^atqut 
oiuBorem babuerat Iofepbuin Iulium Graecarum Liu 
temrum Interpretem in Bibliotbeca Faticma , & 
in Collegio Vrbano de Propaganda Vide , quemad- 
modum nofcere licet ex Mqnito Typograpbi nomi- 
ne , quod ad calcem pofterioris Editionis legitur. 
Haec funt , de quibus te , Lcftor , monitum vo+ 
luimus. Vivas , valeas feliciter • 

ALPKA- 



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ALPHABETUM 

GRAECUM. 

Figura Nomcn Potcftas 



A a eh 


a\(pct 


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Pi 


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Rho 


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T t7 rew TaU t 

T v v<^i?£v Ypfilon y , wl a 

$ <p <pi Phi ph 

X % %' ^*i *^ 

*4 47 Pfi pf 

£l a> dfuyt Omega o magnum 

De poteftate litterarum . 

A et valet a 5 ut dyzQig agathos . 
B j3 valet u confonans , ut fiafGctp& 

varvaross aliis ejl , ut b . 
T 7 valet gh 3 ut yiye$L$a> ghegrapha « 
A £ valet d) ut JWkA<§>* daedalos . 
Ee valet e 3 ut iyb ego. 
z£ valet x, ut fylfooq zatheos^ 
Hu valet i longum * <pfi/«i phimis *///> 

- ejl > tit c . 
Q& valet th , ut Qdvdfo thanatos. 
1 1 valet i 9 ut /*»#$ iacchos . 
K x, valet C) ut xof>6Jh>v corydon J 
A A valet t, ut ^'tos lalos. 
M ft valet m * ut MPytoli mormo . 
N v valet n 5 ut vai nae . 
s£ valet x , ut %«*&&&% Xantho- 

thrix. 

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f 

io o valet o parvum * o/3«Ai*xo * ovcli- 

fcos. 
iTIir valet p> ut Wttsta pappa* 
P { valet r > ut pa/*» rhomi « 
2 a- valet f , ut naif? farx • 
T r valet 1 1 ut toAoc talas . 
Tw valet y, ut tJ/^o^ hyranos > *///7 

eft *ut vl. - 
# <p valet ph , ut <p/%$ philos • 
X % valet ch , Xe*s*'$ Chriftos > jgtof 

chaos . 
** 4 v^lct pf , ut 4^E pfi* • 
A a valet o longutn 9 ut »** oca • 

De Vvcalibus I 

V 

Vocales funt feptem 5 ^«,)ij/) 
«5 t/, » , quae dividuhtutf in longas, 
breves , & ancipites . Long* funt w * 
«» • Breves t y a . Ancipites «)i,t/« 

, Z?e Diphthongis • 

JEx his vocalibus fiunt diphthongi 
duodecim , quarum fex dicuntur pro- 
priae, fex impropriac, Propriae funt 

A 4 0u , 



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s 

ax 3 ojj * et $dj$ 01 5 «u . Impropriae fuitt 
9> ?j ?') wj tj) »i; • Quarum pote- 
ilatem fequens oftendit 

Pottfias Diphthongorum 
propriarum. 

cu facit ae* ut cujig aegis. 

At; facit au , ut ooAw auli • 

« facit i longum, ut %«§ chir. 

& facit cu , ut €u>e cugc . 

01 facit i longum , ut oi/<pi imi • 

ou facit u > ut vkovJ) u?un . 

Potejlas J?iphthongorum 
m impropriarum . 

^t cum iota fubferipto facit a longum > 

ut «'<&> ado . 
*i cum iota fubferipto facit i longum > 

ut th ftpvry ti mufi. 
^ cum iota fubferipto facit o.longum, 

ut mMvqxJJiit paliaodia'. 
ij cum iota adferipto facit i longum > 

ut-a'gOTj* harpya • 

«u fa- 



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9 

mv facie iU) fo*v iuon. 

w facit ou , «Wc outos. 

Vocalis ypfilon poftpofiu in diph* 
thongis otf^) ^)(^) iam ferine— j 
pronunciatur 3 ut u confonans in his 
vocibus, Auarus, Euander, iuerunt, 
ouarev uva. 

De Accentihus . . 

AD rationem legendi fpe&a* quo 
que accentus , qui triplex eii •• 
Acucus tollit voccm , & tfotatur 
lineola re&a a dextra ad finiftram , 
deorfum vergens hoc modo ' • Potcft 
autem effe in ultima (y llaba 5 pcnul- 
tima 5 & antepenultima . Quamobrem 
vox bxytona dicitur* ut ®^k\ paroxy- 
tona, ut ^>®^5 proparoxytona > ut 

Gravis deprimit vocem , & npta,- 
tur lineola re&a a finiftra ad dexte- 
ram % deorfum vergens hoc modo N * 
Is aucem in ultima tantutq efle pa? 
teft : ex quo vox gravitona > feu Ba- 

ryto- 



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10' 

rytona dicitur, ut w^* ultima verd 
acuta fit gravis ob confequentem di- 
aionem,ut ©«d 5 liffi . Quaecumque 
fyllaba nullo acccntu notata intelligi- 
tur habere gravem. 

-Orcumflexus, five inflexus conftat 
ex acuto, & gravi , ideoque fimul acuit 
fyllabam, ac deprimiti atque ita no- 
tatur •, vel hoc modo " . Poteft autem 
cfle in ultima, & penultima, fed tan- 
tum natura longa, & <juidem in pe- 
nultima, fi ultima fit natura brevis, 
ut pSm , woiaT 5 iUic vox peripfome- 
na, hie propcripfomena dicitur . 

De Spiritibus . 

SPiritus funt duo, lenis ' fcb\ afpf- 
ratus .' v3ro % . 
Littera e initio diaionis habet fpi- 
rituro afpiratum ,. pV^w . Duo f . in me- 
dio didionis nptantur hoc modo, «ppro . 
Quando diaio incipit ab u , femper 
afpiratur, ut -unfiaMu. 

Ve 



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O R A T I Q 

DOMINI.CAIIS. 

• ' ' ' 

t8-»i» to oyoyt^e ca . 'EA3f t» » 0«- 
Gixdat. as . Td-ynS^TW to 94x»/t& <w » a»c 

to? fki&mw «To« M/tm 1 oiiiM&v, K«v *<pe$ 
rytuV to ^tp«AwjttaS W/M^ > »$ <?f' ty* 5 ** 
atpii/dfJ %ii QQetAercus iifflfi .* Kce/ /*.»' ««- 
veytrii *f4£K «5 wet^a-jtipv . 'AAA* p3<j«# 
*/(<0C « 5RJ w srorifg£ . * h\diu * 

SALUTATIO 
ANGELICA. 

'I»<T8« . *A><'a Maeia , ;*»■*»$ ©*« > *»C9- 

5YM- 



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u 

SYMBOLUM 
APOSTOIORUM. 

& y Ttomrlw £^avx > j£ yq$ • K */ dg 
9 lv\rSv X&egoy t yov (wnfeva <upvov , xv&ov 
ijuffl . /lv\\rt$5iv& ok> nvdjpdfQ* dyi* ^ 

jflpe) 7n$svm . KflmXf&ov(# «$ ql£lw f ri\ 
rexrvi itjud^t dva$dy'(& ex vcagpv . *AveA- 

fxtWei sffi&xj *&*&! ^ffotg^KS^ wc^xg . 
tlirdfc* dg nvsfyta a'jior • *A><a# okk^woiclv 
xctSroXiKlw 3 aya)V noivwlw . E*$ alqtaiv 
d/ufp-ndv • lafwbg dvd&toiv •' Kdj £w!w cud- 
mv • 'A/t£J . 

PRAECEPTA 
D E C\A L O G I. 

ETd> ei^tti *t$£io$ o Qtof'0-i* j vx'ieuffaj oot 
3-ici 'in&i 7d^lw ipS . Ot3 w^etg tew* 

Ov 



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Ot5 A»4? ^ oVo/e^pj icveit* to ©e« a-* fiW 
parade* • * fi [iti KkduQAai Kupi&> r /\&p- 
Cctvo>'(ik jo faof& Kvei* tov ®f« *ws^ &^J 

fACLTalcp . 

^!av omtIw • 

©fog 9*8 J/Jbai col 

Ov <pov<&<reig • » 

OtJ «A«4^ • 
fxfjb'TvejUHr 4^ /c ^ # 



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